May 10, 2013 | Expiration date:
May 10, 2014
Estimated time to complete activity:
Type of Activity:
This activity is supported by an educational grant from Allergan, Inc.
Medical directors, pharmacy directors, formulary committee members, employee benefits managers, specialty pharmacists, and other managed care professionals who are involved in treating diseases of the aging eye.
Statement of Educational Need
As a result of the rapidly aging baby boomers, the prevalence of age-related diseases, including diseases of the eye, will continue to increase. By 2020, age-related macular degeneration, one of the leading causes of vision loss, is expected to affect 2.95 million individuals in the United States. Likewise, the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma, estimated at 2.2 million in 2000, is projected to increase by 50%, to 3.36 million by 2020. Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of new cases of legal blindness among adults aged 20 to 74 years in the United States. Dry eye, which affects an estimated 40 million Americans, increases in prevalence with age, from approximately 8.4% in those younger than 60 years to 19% in those older than 80 years.
The economic costs of age-related ocular diseases and vision loss are also increasing rapidly as our society ages. In addition to the direct costs of treating age-related eye diseases, elderly persons with vision loss are at significantly increased risk of falls and fractures, social isolation, and suffering from an array of comorbid medical conditions compared with individuals with normal vision. Recent studies have estimated the total economic burden of adult vision impairment in the United States at $51.4 billion in direct and indirect costs. Treatment for several major agerelated ocular diseases has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years. Advances in basic science and clinical research have led to a more thorough understanding of the complex pathophysiology underlying common ocular diseases in the aging, and to the development of highly effective new therapies for these conditions. This activity will explore the epidemiology and pathophysiology of age-related eye diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye disease. The discussion will also address current treatment strategies and managed care implications for patients with the aforementioned ocular conditions.
Upon completion of the educational activity, the participant should be able to:
Differentiate the epidemiology and pathophysiology of age-related eye diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye disease
Identify the challenges of current treatment strategies for patients with glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and dry eye disease, and the barriers to optimal treatment
Explore managed care implications related to age-related ocular conditions
Compare and contrast available ocular therapeutic agents to formulate an individualized treatment plan for patients with age-related eye diseases
The activity is free for participants submitting evaluation forms and posttests online for pharmacy credit. For participants submitting their posttests/evaluation forms and requests for credit via fax or mail, there is a nominal fee of $10.00.
According to the disclosure policies of Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education, all persons who are in a position to control content are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships with commercial interests. If a conflict is identified, it is the responsibility of Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education to initiate a mechanism to resolve the conflict(s). The existence of these relationships is not viewed as implying bias or decreasing the value of the activity. All educational materials are reviewed for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies reported, and levels of evidence.
Accreditation and Credit Designation
Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) as a provider of continuing
pharmacy education. This activity is approved for 2.5 contact hours (0.25 CEUs) under the ACPE universal activity number 0290-9999-13-126-H01-P. The activity is available for CE credit through May 10, 2014.
Participants must read each article in this supplement, complete the posttest (achieving a passing score of 70% or higher), and complete an evaluation and request for credit. Detailed instructions on obtaining CE credit are included on the evaluation/posttest page contained in this supplement.
The contents of this supplement may include information regarding the use of products that may be inconsistent with or outside the approved labeling for these products in the United States. Healthcare professionals should note that the use of these products outside current approved labeling is considered experimental and are advised to consult prescribing information for these products.
Esen K. Akpek, MD
Director, Ocular Surface Disease & Dry Eye Clinic
Associate Professor of Ophthalmology
Division of Cornea, Cataract, & External Diseases
The Wilmer Eye Institute
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
William J. Cardarelli, PharmD
Director of Pharmacy Revenue and Supply
Atrius Health/Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates
Roderick A. Smith, MS
These faculty have disclosed the following relevant commercial financial relationships or affiliations in the past 12 months.
Esen K. Akpek, MD
Consultant: Bausch & Lomb
Research grants: Alcon; Allergan, Inc
William J. Cardarelli, PharmD, has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Roderick A. Smith, MS, has no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
The American Journal of Managed Care
Publishing Staff—Jeff D. Prescott, PharmD, RPh; Kara Guarini, MS; and Ida Delmendo have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education and Physicians’ Education Resource, LLC
Planning Staff—Judy V. Lum, MPA; and Elena Beyzarov, PharmD, have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Signed disclosures are on file at the office of The American Journal of Managed Care
, Plainsboro, New Jersey.
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Publisher’s Note: The opinions expressed in this supplement are those of the authors, presenters, and/or panelists and are not attributable to the sponsor or the publisher, editor, or editorial board of The American Journal of Managed Care. Clinical judgment must guide each professional in weighing the benefits of treatment against the risk of toxicity. Dosages, indications, and methods of use for products referred to in this supplement are not necessarily the same as indicated in the package insert for the product and may reflect the clinical experience of the authors, presenters, and/or panelists or may be derived from the professional literature or other clinical sources. Consult complete prescribing information before administering.
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