Impact of a Medicare MTM Program: Evaluating Clinical and Economic Outcomes
Published Online: February 25, 2014
Rita L. Hui, PharmD, MS; Brian D. Yamada, PharmD; Michele M. Spence, PhD; Erwin W. Jeong, PharmD; and James Chan, PharmD, PhD
Medicare Part D (MPD) is a prescription drug benefit for seniors and individuals with disabilities, which began in 2006 after enactment of the 2004 Medicare Modernization Act.1 Along with the establishment of MPD, there was a mandate for the participating plans to provide medication therapy management (MTM) services to MPD beneficiaries who met specific eligibility requirements. 2 The goal of the Medicare MTM program is to improve health outcomes. Although MTM services can be provided by a variety of healthcare professionals, pharmacists—with their extensive knowledge of medications—are the most common providers.3-5
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) mandates provision of MTM services, targeted at MPD beneficiaries with multiple chronic conditions who are taking multiple Part D medications and likely to exceed a preset annual cost for covered Part D medications.2 The eligibility criteria for MTM services have changed since the inception of the program for MPD beneficiaries, with the most significant updates imposed by CMS in 2010. The major changes included: (1) standardizing the minimum number of chronic conditions and Part D medications required; (2) decreasing the annual threshold for medication costs from $4000 in 2006 to $3000 in 2010; and (3) requiring all participating plans to enroll eligible Part D beneficiaries in an opt-out manner, versus the previous opt-in or opt-out option that MTM programs could offer at their discretion between 2006 and 2009. These changes resulted in a substantial increase in eligible beneficiaries for MTM programs in 2010.
Several small studies have evaluated various outcomes of MTM services in various settings.6-19 These studies were limited in that they were either limited to specific disease states, lacked a comparison group or used patients who opted out of MTM services as the comparison group. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-run telephone based Medicare MTM services on health-related outcomes for enrolled patients compared with a matched control group from January 2006 to December 2010 in the Kaiser Permanente (KP) California Regions. Our aim was to evaluate if there was any impact that our MTM program had on hospitalization utilization, emergency department (ED) visits, change in daily prescription costs, and mortality rate.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
KP California is an integrated healthcare delivery system caring for 6.6 million members in California. Medicare beneficiaries comprise approximately 10% of the total membership, with over 90% of those members having purchased the MPD benefit. Over 40% of our MPD beneficiaries have employer-sponsored retiree benefits. KP California’s Medicare MTM program started in 2006 and was initially staffed by 16 full time (FT) clinical pharmacists and 10 FT support staff. By 2010, the number had grown to approximately 40 FT pharmacists and 22 FT support staff to meet the increased demand for services.
From 2006 to 2009, the KP California MTM program identified members that were likely to incur annual drug costs of $4000 or more, who were taking at least 2 medications covered by MPD and had at least 2 or more chronic conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or stroke. MTM services were offered to these patients, and participation in the program was voluntary. In 2010, in addition to the changes in eligible requirements made by CMS, KP California MTM increased the number of chronic conditions from 2 to 3 and the number of required medications from 2 to 5. It was estimated that approximately 3% of MPD enrollees were eligible for the MTM program during the period from 2006 to 2009, while 5% of the MPD enrollees were eligible for MTM program during 2010.
Potential participants meeting the above criteria were identified several times per year during the study period by a computerized system and letters outlining the MTM program were mailed to the members. During 2006 to 2009, only patients who agreed to participate were contacted by the MTM staff, while in 2010, all patients who did not opt out were contacted by the MTM staff. All contacts were made by phone. The initial encounter consisted of the pharmacist or a support staff member obtaining a list of current medications, followed by the pharmacist performing a comprehensive medication review. Follow-up encounters generally focused on identifying opportunities to improve medication therapy. All encounters and interventions made by the MTM staff were documented in each patient's electronic medical record.
The MTM pharmacists worked under collaborative practice agreements with physicians from the Permanente Medical Group and Southern California Permanente Medical Group. Interventions may have included: performing or obtaining necessary assessments of the patient’s health status; initiating and adjusting doses of medications and ordering medication-associated laboratory tests; reviewing and adjusting medications to reduce the likelihood of adverse drug events, interactions, or duplication of therapy; ensuring optimal dosing; improving medication adherence; providing education to enhance each patient’s understanding and to encourage appropriate use of medications; simplifying drug therapy and reducing drug therapy costs; and ensuring therapies are in concordance with clinical practice guidelines. Any recommendations falling outside of the protocol were communicated to the primary care physician for approval. Coordination of services was performed with local population care management services, as well as ambulatory care pharmacist-managed services (eg, anticoagulation, oncology, etc).
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