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The American Journal of Managed Care July 2009
Adherence to Osteoporosis Medications After Patient and Physician Brief Education: Post Hoc Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Aimee Der-Huey Shu, MD; Margaret R. Stedman, MPH; Jennifer M. Polinski, MPH, MS; Saira A. Jan, MS, PharmD; Minal Patel, MD, MPH; Colleen Truppo, RN, MBA; Laura Breiner, RN, BSN; Ya-ting Chen, PhD; Thomas W. Weiss, DrPH; and Daniel H. Solomon, MD, MPH
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Daniel S. Longyhore, PharmD; Casey McNulty Stockton, PharmD; and Marie Roke Thomas, PhD
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Stephen F. Derose, MD, MS; Randall K. Nakahiro, PharmD; and Frederick H. Ziel, MD
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Niteesh K. Choudhry, MD, PhD; William H. Shrank, MD, MSHS; Raisa L. Levin, MS; Joy L. Lee, BA; Saira A. Jan, MS, PharmD; M. Alan Brookhart, PhD; and Daniel H. Solomon, MD, MPH
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Medicaid Beneficiaries With Congestive Heart Failure: Association of Medication Adherence With Healthcare Use and Costs
Dominick Esposito, PhD; Ann D. Bagchi, PhD; James M. Verdier, JD; Deo S. Bencio, BS; and Myoung S. Kim, PhD
A Multiattribute Decision Model for Bipolar Disorder: Identification of Preferred Mood-Stabilizing Medications
Brandon T. Suehs, PharmD; and Tawny L. Bettinger, PharmD, BCPP
Impact of Workplace Health Services on Adherence to Chronic Medications
Bruce W. Sherman, MD; Sharon Glave Frazee, PhD; Raymond J. Fabius, MD, CPE; Rochelle A. Broome, MD; James R. Manfred, RPh; and Jeffery C. Davis, MBA

Medicaid Beneficiaries With Congestive Heart Failure: Association of Medication Adherence With Healthcare Use and Costs

Dominick Esposito, PhD; Ann D. Bagchi, PhD; James M. Verdier, JD; Deo S. Bencio, BS; and Myoung S. Kim, PhD

Higher medication adherence among Medicaid beneficiaries with congestive heart failure was associated with lower healthcare utilization and lower costs, and the relationship to costs was graded.

Objectives: To examine the association of medication adherence with healthcare use and costs among Medicaid beneficiaries with congestive heart failure (CHF), to investigate whether the association was a graded one, and to estimate the potential savings due to improved adherence.

Study Design: Using Medicare and Medicaid data for 4 states, adherence was estimated using the medication possession ratio (MPR).

Methods: Multivariate logistic and 2-part general linear models were estimated to study the primary objectives. The MPR was specified in multiple ways to examine its association with healthcare use and costs.

Results: Adherent beneficiaries were less likely to have a hospitalization (0.4 percentage points), had fewer hospitalizations (13%), had in excess of 2 fewer inpatient days (25%), were less likely to have an emergency department (ED) visit (3%), and had fewer ED visits (10%) than nonadherent beneficiaries. Total healthcare costs were $5910 (23%) less per year for adherent beneficiaries compared with nonadherent beneficiaries. The relationship between medication adherence and healthcare costs was graded. For example, beneficiaries with adherence rates of 95% or higher had about 15% lower healthcare costs than those with adherence rates between 80% and less than 95% ($17,665 vs $20,747, P <.01). The relationship between adherence and total healthcare costs was even more stark when the most adherent beneficiaries were segmented into finer subgroups.

Conclusions: Healthcare costs among Medicaid beneficiaries with CHF would be lower if more patients were adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Researchers should reconsider whether a binary threshold for adherence is sufficient to examine the association of adherence with outcomes and healthcare costs.

(Am J Manag Care. 2009;15(7):437-445)

Higher adherence to congestive heart failure (CHF) medications was associated with lower healthcare utilization and lower costs among Medicaid beneficiaries.

  • The relationship between medication adherence and healthcare costs was a graded one. Beneficiaries with near-perfect drug adherence had lower healthcare costs than beneficiaries with only slightly lower adherence. 
  • Overall Medicare outlays could be considerably lower if more enrollees with CHF were adherent.
  • Researchers should reconsider whether a simple binary threshold for adherence (eg, a medication possession ratio of 80%) is sufficient for examining the association of drug adherence with outcomes and healthcare costs.
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States, affecting more than 5 million people at an expected cost of $34.8 billion in 2008.1 The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has prioritized improved treatment of CHF, among other chronic conditions, through demonstrations and pilot programs for its beneficiaries.2-4 The prevalence of CHF is as high as 2.6% among Medicaid beneficiaries and 10.7% among those dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid (dual eligibles).5 Patients with CHF account for a disproportionate share of CMS spending. In 1999, 14% of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries with CHF accounted for 43% of total spending.2

Patients with CHF are generally at increased risk for heart attack, stroke, emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization, and death.6-8 To minimize their risk, most patients with CHF should use 1 or more drugs from different therapeutic subclasses, including loop diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and β-blockers.9-11 However, medication nonadherence is common among patients with CHF, and Medicaid beneficiaries’ drug use is often inconsistent with practice guidelines.12-17

Despite evidence that poor adherence leads to higher hospitalization rates, few studies18-20 have examined the relationship between adherence and healthcare costs for patients with CHF, although hospitalization accounts for their highest share of expenditures. If higher CHF drug adherence is associated with lower hospitalization risk, it stands to reason that it is also associated with lower healthcare costs.

This study had 3 primary objectives. The first objective was to examine the association of CHF medication adherence with healthcare use and costs in a Medicaid population. The second objective was to investigate whether the association between drug adherence and outcomes was a graded one. Throughout the literature, the primary threshold used to represent adherent behavior is a medication possession ratio (MPR) of 80%, but we hypothesized that the relationship was more likely graded. The third objective was to estimate the potential savings to Medicaid based on any findings that suggested an association between CHF medication adherence and healthcare costs.

METHODS

Data and Sample Selection

This study used medical and pharmacy claims data from the 1998 State Medicaid Research Files, the 1999 Medicaid Analytic eXtract, and the 1999 Medicare Standard Analytic File for Medicaid beneficiaries residing in Arkansas, California, Indiana, and New Jersey. We selected these states because they are geographically and demographically diverse and because they had limited or no capitated managed care for the disabled and older Medicaid population in 1998 and 1999. In addition, CHF drug utilization differences across these states were not due to differences in copayments or benefit designs.17

The research sample included noninstitutionalized beneficiaries with at least 1 CHF drug claim in 1999, medical claims for CHF, and continuous enrollment in fee-for-service Medicaid with pharmacy benefit coverage. The CHF medications were identified using First DataBank’s Master Drug Data Base21 therapeutic classification system and included the following drug groups: antianginals, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, antiarrhythmics, antihypertensives, and diuretics. Beneficiaries were identified as having CHF if they were hospitalized with a CHF diagnosis in 1998 or had at least 2 ambulatory visits in 1998 with a CHF diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 402.xx, 404.xx, and 428.x).

Medication Adherence

We used the MPR to measure CHF medication adherence in 1999.22 Using all CHF drug claims, the MPR was calculated by dividing a patient’s total days’ supply of medication by the number of days between the date of the patient’s first fill and the last day on which the patient had medication available. Days during which a patient stayed in a hospital are excluded from the calculation, and days for which more than 1 CHF drugs were available are counted only once. Using multiple CHF drug subclasses to examine adherence is more lenient than focusing on 1 subclass and is appropriate for a Medicaid population, as research indicates considerable underutilization of CHF drugs from any single subclass.15,17

This study considers multiple MPR specifications. First, the threshold of 80% is used to deem patients as adherent (≥80%) or as nonadherent (<80%). This value is borrowed from established literature on cardiovascular disease and from previous adherence research.6,23-31 However, there is no clinical evidence to support using this ratio or any other value as the threshold for medication adherence. Second, in a sensitivity analysis we also specified the MPR as a continuous variable. Third, we specified the MPR as 4 different ordinal variables. The first ordinal variable has 3 levels, segmenting patients with an MPR of 95% or higher from patients with an MPR between 80% and less than 95% and from patients with an MPR below 80%. We also specified 3 different 5-level ordinal variables. First, we examined the MPR by adherence quintile (eg, the first quintile is 0%-20%, and the last quintile is 80%-100%). Second, we segmented the MPR by quintile such that roughly 20% of the sample fell into each group. Third, we specified an ordinal variable to examine adherence for patients with a nearperfect MPR (with each subgroup containing ≥10% of the sample). The 5 levels were 99% or higher, 95% to less than 99%, 80% to less than 95%, 50% to less than 80%, and less than 50%.

Outcome Variables and Regression Analyses

We examined healthcare costs and utilization in 1999. Cost outcomes included total healthcare (including and excluding drug costs) and drug, inpatient, outpatient, and other medical costs (skilled nursing facility, hospice, ED, and durable medical equipment). Utilization included any hospital use, the number of hospital admissions, the number of hospital days, any ED use, and the number of ED visits. Regression analyses examined the association in 1999 between CHF drug adherence and outcomes.

The distribution of costs dictated regression specifications for models in which costs were the dependent variables. For cost data with only nonzero values (total costs, including drug costs), we estimated a generalized linear model (GLM). For skewed data with many zero values, we used a 2-stage procedure.32,33 We first estimated a logistic regression to model the likelihood of having a nonzero cost and then estimated costs with a GLM, multiplying cost estimates by the predicted probability of having nonzero costs to obtain final cost estimates. For all GLM equations, we used the modified Park test to determine the appropriate link function.33 We estimated costs through the method of recycled predictions, setting all sample members as adherent or as nonadherent, while keeping all other individual characteristics constant. For models in which adherence was specified as a 3-level or 5-level variable, we estimated costs for each of the 3 to 5 subgroups separately.

We estimated logit models for hospital admissions and ED visits and least squares regressions for the number of hospitalizations, the number of hospital days, and the number of ED visits. All utilization outcomes were estimated through recycled predictions. We estimated all regressions using commercially available statistical software (STATA, release 9; StataCorp LP, College Station, TX).34

Independent Variables

The independent variable of interest was the MPR. Regression analyses also included demographic characteristics, health risk factors, and CHF comorbidities.  demographic characteristics included a dual-eligible indicator, age (≤64, 65-74, 75-84, and ≥85 years), sex, state of residence, and race/ethnicity (white, African American, or other). Health risk factors and comorbidities included whether the beneficiary also had diagnosed coronary artery disease or diabetes mellitus and whether the beneficiary had any hospitalizations related or unrelated to CHF during 1998, as well as a diagnostic risk adjustor based on the Chronic Illness and Disability Payment System35 using 1998 medical claims data.

Potential Savings to Medicare

To estimate the potential savings to Medicare from higher CHF medication adherence, we extrapolated study findings on an aggregate level. This was based on published estimates of the number of beneficiaries with CHF and on assumptions about their mean medication adherence.36

RESULTS

In the 4 study states, 37,408 of Medicaid beneficiaries met the inclusion criteria (Table 1). About 36% were younger than 65 years, and 15% were 85 years or older. Slightly more than half were white, and roughly a quarter were African American. Almost three-fourths were female, 72% were dual eligibles, and about half were classified as disabled (and about half of these were also dual eligibles [data not shown]). Many beneficiaries had medical claims for other cardiovascular conditions in addition to CHF, including coronary artery disease (29%) and diabetes (30%). In 1998, 38% of the sample had a hospitalization for CHF, and 38% had a hospitalization for other conditions. In 1999, beneficiaries averaged 1.2 CHF drug claims per month. The most common CHF drug subclasses in the sample were diuretics (59% of patients), ACE inhibitors (45%), and antianginals (35%) (data not shown). Among adherent sample members as specified by an MPR threshold of 80%, the demographic profile was similar to that of the entire research sample, but the number of drug fills was higher.

Hospital and ED Use

Hospital and ED outcomes were always lower for adherent beneficiaries compared with nonadherent beneficiaries, and all differences were significant at P = .01 (Table 2). Adherent beneficiaries were less likely to have a hospitalization (0.4 percentage points), had fewer hospitalizations per beneficiary (13%), had in excess of 2 fewer days spent in the hospital (25%), were less likely to have an ED visit (3%), and had fewer ED visits per beneficiary (10%). When medication adherence was specified as an ordinal variable (at 3 or 5 levels), all healthcare utilization outcomes were generally least likely or lowest for beneficiaries with the highest MPR (data not shown).

Healthcare Costs

 
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