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The American Journal of Managed Care January 2019
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Eli G. Phillips Jr, PharmD, JD; Chadi Nabhan, MD, MBA; and Bruce A. Feinberg, DO
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Inpatient Electronic Health Record Maintenance From 2010 to 2015
Vincent X. Liu, MD, MS; Nimah Haq, MPH; Ignatius C. Chan, MD; and Brian Hoberman, MD, MBA
Mind the Gap: The Potential of Alternative Health Information Exchange
Jordan Everson, PhD; and Dori A. Cross, PhD
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Karen Donelan, ScD, EdM; Esteban A. Barreto, MA; Sarah Sossong, MPH; Carie Michael, SM; Juan J. Estrada, MSc, MBA; Adam B. Cohen, MD; Janet Wozniak, MD; and Lee H. Schwamm, MD
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Paul T. Norton, MPH, MBA; Hector P. Rodriguez, PhD, MPH; Stephen M. Shortell, PhD, MPH, MBA; and Valerie A. Lewis, PhD, MA
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Drivers of Health Information Exchange Use During Postacute Care Transitions
Dori A. Cross, PhD; Jeffrey S. McCullough, PhD; and Julia Adler-Milstein, PhD

Inpatient Electronic Health Record Maintenance From 2010 to 2015

Vincent X. Liu, MD, MS; Nimah Haq, MPH; Ignatius C. Chan, MD; and Brian Hoberman, MD, MBA
In the 6 years following inpatient electronic health record (EHR) implementation, an average of 2.5 significant EHR changes per day were made for maintenance and improvement.
RESULTS

Between 2010 and 2015, 5551 unique changes were made to the inpatient EHR (Figure 1), with a median of 72 (IQR, 35-112) changes per month. Most unique changes (n = 3191 [57.5%]) were updates to existing functionality, with 95.7% affecting all 21 hospitals. Individual changes were aggregated within 2190 update communication documents.

Upgrades related to EHR orders contributed to the largest proportion of all significant changes (44.7% of documents) (Figure 2). In total, changes to templated order sets comprised 29.9% of all documents. Other EHR functional domains that accounted for a significant proportion of all changes included clinical data review (15.7%), surgical and ED-specific tools (13.5%), alerts and customization (11.4%), grouped reports and HIM (8.3%), and patient tools and other (6.3%). Overall, changes affected 135 EHR functions.

In total, 151 specific types of users were affected by changes (eg, bed controller, cardiologist, certified nurse midwife, support site specialist), with an impact on all KPHC users 10.2% of the time. Targeted changes most frequently affected nurses (30.6%), physicians (26.6%), and other clinical staff (22.7%), such as pharmacists, therapists, and dietitians. The specific clinical areas most commonly affected by changes included surgical specialties (7.9%), ED (7.1%), mother–baby (6.9%), and pharmacy (6.4%) (Table).

DISCUSSION

Over a 6-year period, the changes required to maintain and improve an inpatient EHR system were substantial and diverse, with a pervasive impact. On average, 2.5 significant EHR changes occurred each day, together affecting more than 130 specific tools and 150 unique user roles across the 21 hospitals. Key areas that were frequently targeted by updates included specific EHR tools (order sets), clinical domains (surgical and ED), and end users (nurses, physicians, and pharmacists).

Widespread implementation of inpatient EHR systems has occurred rapidly over the past decade; however, few studies have comprehensively detailed the maintenance required to optimize their use.4,5 Most studies evaluating EHR implementation have focused on quantifying the costs and barriers related to initial implementation, the outcomes associated with EHR uptake, and the impact of EHR use on clinicians and patients.6-18,20-25 Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that the benefits of EHR use accrue gradually over time and are likely attributable to the ongoing addition of new functionality attained via continual updates and upgrades.21,26 Thus, although much attention is focused on the initial “go live” of the system, the true benefits of EHR adoption may only emerge with persistent attention to enhancing the EHR-based workflows and tools that drive improvements in care. In particular, the customization and usability of EHR functions to meet end-user needs have been identified as key measures that portend likely EHR benefit and can also mitigate potential harm arising from usability or workflow challenges.27-30

Limitations

The primary limitation of this study is that our findings were based on a single healthcare system and a specific EHR product, which may limit the generalizability of our findings. Our study focused on the clinical aspects of inpatient EHR maintenance recorded within monthly change communication reports. However, our findings almost certainly represent a significant underestimate of the true scale and scope of ongoing EHR changes across our system. Numerous daily changes are made to EHR functions that do not rise to the significance level that would trigger their inclusion within communication reports. Our findings also do not account for simultaneous outpatient EHR and information technology infrastructure support, which contributes heavily to ongoing maintenance needs. Finally, the resources needed to implement each change could vary significantly, in terms of both time and cost.

CONCLUSIONS

EHR maintenance needs were prevalent and diverse, affecting 150 unique user roles and contributing to an average of more than 2.5 significant changes per day. Our findings highlight the need for significant resources, expertise, and collaboration to maximize EHR clinical utility and benefit. They also demonstrate that an EHR system represents a dynamic network of evolving tools that requires ongoing investment well after initial implementation.

Author Affiliations: Kaiser Permanente Division of Research (VXL), Oakland, CA; Master of Public Health Program, University of Southern California (NH), Los Angeles, CA; The Permanente Medical Group (VXL, ICC, BH), Oakland, CA.

Source of Funding: The Permanente Medical Group, National Institutes of Health/National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIH/NIGMS) K23 GM112018, and NIH/NIGMS R35 GM128672.

Author Disclosures: Dr Liu is employed with The Permanente Medical Group and received the NIH/NIGMS K23 GM112018 grant. Dr Chan and Dr Hoberman are employed with The Permanente Medical Group. Ms Haq reports no relationship or financial interest with any entity that would pose a conflict of interest with the subject matter of this article.

Authorship Information: Concept and design (VXL, NH, ICC, BH); acquisition of data (VXL, ICC, BH); analysis and interpretation of data (VXL, NH, ICC, BH); drafting of the manuscript (VXL); critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content (VXL, NH, ICC, BH); statistical analysis (VXL, NH); provision of patients or study materials (ICC); obtaining funding (VXL); administrative, technical, or logistic support (VXL, ICC, BH); and supervision (VXL, ICC, BH).

Address Correspondence to: Vincent X. Liu, MD, MS, Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, 2000 Broadway, Oakland, CA 95070. Email: Vincent.x.liu@kp.org.
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