Published Online: March 18, 2014
Surabhi Dangi-Garimella, PhD
Following a pilot launch in 2002, the Quality Oncology Practice Initiative (QOPI) was opened up to all members of the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) in 2006 with the objective that ASCO be the international leader in ensuring high-quality cancer care.1,2 The ball was set rolling by the final report, (Ensuring Quality Cancer Care), submitted by the National Cancer Policy Board (NCPB) created by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), with the chair of the NCPB, Joseph Simone, MD, proposing the concept of QOPI.2,3 With more than 973 registered oncology practices across the United States involved in the program as of November 2010,4 QOPI is designed to measure care provided in outpatient oncology practices against evidence-based and expert consensus care recommendations.
Substandard healthcare provided by oncology practices and centers can result in avoidable morbidities and mortalities and accumulate unnecessary healthcare costs. In 2010, Don Berwick, MD, who was then administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), expressed interest in partnering with ASCO to raise the quality of service rendered to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries.5
Subsequently, the 2014 ASCO annual report announced plans to position QOPI as a model clinical registry with CMS, through a provision made in the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012.6
Maintaining high standards for successful treatment requires efficient measures, as well as periodic review to ensure continuing improvement. QOPI was developed by world-renowned practicing oncologists and quality experts, using clinical guidelines and published standards such as the National Initiative on Cancer Care Quality, ASCO/National Comprehensive Cancer Network Quality Measures, and American Society for Radiation Oncology/ASCO/American Medical Association Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement Oncology Measures.7
The program currently lists at least 160 measures, which are updated biannually, but these measures are dynamic and may improve with time and experiences.
From Idea to Reality
Simone, a pediatric oncologist who has served as the director of the University of Florida Shands Cancer Center, is the pioneer of the quality improvement program. In a 2009 commentary, he ascribed his inspiration for developing QOPI to multiple factors:
• the pediatric oncology model
• quality of cancer care recommendations that he was involved in drafting as a member of the NCPB
• the uproar created by the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003, which raised the essential question: “Where does the patient stand?”2
Subsequently, Simone initiated a steering committee that laid down a proposed model that was tested (2003) in 25 practices interested in quality-of-care issues. Consequently, QOPI was offered to all ASCO members in 2006.
Program Participation Basics
The program requires that a US-based participating practice have at least 1 active ASCO member in good standing. Currently, international practices can register, but they cannot participate in data collection, although efforts are under way to expand inclusion (iQOPI).
Although participation in QOPI does not entail a fee, data abstraction would cost the practice staff time. Further, practices are encouraged to participate in multiple rounds for rapid quality improvement and to share their data among the entire practice staff. The program necessitates a 1-time registration, and it is recommended that the registration process be initiated at least 1 month prior to data collection.7
QOPI data collection is based on scoring on 7 modules: care at the end of life, symptom/toxicity management, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer (Figure), resulting in nearly 160 quality measures. Participation in specific modules is determined by a clinic’s patient population, and data collection measures are evidence-based, process-centric, and are reassessed every 6 months. The core measures include pathology report confirming malignancy, staging documented in the first month of an office visit, pain assessment and pain addressed appropriately, a documented plan for chemotherapy, consent, treatment intent, smoking status with adequate counseling for cessation, and emotional well-being of the patient.
Practices with multiple locations can maintain a single or multiple accounts, with either staff or physician reporting.3,7 According to James Brandman, MD, MS, medical director of Northwestern Medicine Cancer Quality Practice and director of the Robert H. Lurie Clinical Cancer Center, “The Northwestern Medical Faculty Foundation (NMFF) was one of the first practices to enroll with QOPI, after it opened up for enrollment to ASCO members in 2006 Although our practice is well known for palliative care, QOPI assessment identified low pain control scores. This information was relayed back to the physicians and the necessary changes were implemented.” The metrics that formulate QOPI helped design the annual quality projects of the Kellogg Cancer Center according to Thomas Hensing, MD, clinical associate professor at the Kellogg Cancer Center of NorthShore University Health System.
Data Sampling Technique
The sampling protocol is laid out to include patients most recently seen in an out-patient setting, with charts of patients with an invasive malignancy (identified <2 years earlier) who were evaluated in a recent 6-month period being included. Sample size is determined by the number of associated physicians and the number of modules selected.
Registered practices are provided with updated information on data collection, both in the form of training material and webinars, as well as individual training sessions.7
Data can be submitted through a Web-based application and reports are provided within 4 weeks that can help a practice evaluate where it stands compared to the aggregate results of QOPI to improve performance.3 The entire process is compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.
QOPI Benefits Over and Above Improved Quality of Care
In addition to improving how well a practice functions, physicians can obtain Continuing Medical Education credits for documenting the development and implementation of a performance improvement plan and maintenance of Physician Board Certification.
Additionally, upon request from a participant, ASCO can verify participation or achievement of QOPI certification to health plans that participate in the program (a list of the current participating health plans can be found at http://qopi.asco.org/Health_Plan_Program.htm).3,7 QOPI participation is a means to QOPI certification, which evolved out of the feedback received from oncologists and their staff asking to share their performance information with health plans and in marketing materials.3
When asked about the participation of the North Shore Cancer Center at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) in the program, Joel Schwartz, MD, director of oncology services at the cancer center, said in an e-mail response, “We were one of the beta test sites for QOPI, as one of the physicians actively involved in setting up QOPI, Joseph Jacobson, MD, was a member of our practice. We thought it would be a good idea to benchmark ourselves against similar institutions nationally and learn where we could do better in delivering the highest quality care to our patients….It has helped us enormously in understanding areas of practice where we can provide better care for our patients (eg, referral for fertility preservation).”
On future plans of the cancer center with regards QOPI certification, Schwartz added, “In my new role as medical oncology network clinical director of the MGH Cancer Center, I have suggested that all hospitals joining our network apply for QOPI certification, as one of the ways to ensure a higher standard of care across the network.”
The QOPI Certification Program (QCP), initiated in 2008 and promoted in 2010, served as the next step to advancing QOPI in attempts to standardize and improve patient care. QCP, which provides a 3-year certification for outpatient hematology-oncology practices, emerged following feedback provided by registered QOPI members,3 based on the fact that a public recognition of QOPI participation, in the form of certification, would further raise the performance of the participating clinics.
According to the Association of Community Cancer Centers, 80% of all adult cancer patients are treated by community oncology practitioners, and 70% of QOPI-certified practices are community-based.8 For certification, the practice must complete a round of QOPI data abstraction, using the QOPI modules, sampling strategy, and appropriate sample size. The resulting
report would determine eligibility for participation in QOPI certification.
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