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Impact of Atypical Antipsychotic Use Among Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Vanja Sikirica, PharmD, MPH; Steven R. Pliszka, MD; Keith A. Betts, PhD; Paul Hodgkins, PhD, MSc; Thomas M. Samuelson, BA; Jipan Xie, MD, PhD; M. Haim Erder, PhD; Ryan S. Dammerman, MD, PhD; Brigitte
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Impact of Atypical Antipsychotic Use Among Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Vanja Sikirica, PharmD, MPH; Steven R. Pliszka, MD; Keith A. Betts, PhD; Paul Hodgkins, PhD, MSc; Thomas M. Samuelson, BA; Jipan Xie, MD, PhD; M. Haim Erder, PhD; Ryan S. Dammerman, MD, PhD; Brigitte
A retrospective study of the treatment patterns and economic outcomes associated with off-label atypical antipsychotic use in the treatment of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Compared with adolescent ADHD patients treated with stimulants who switched to or augmented with a non-antipsychotic medication, those who switched to or augmented with an AAP had significantly greater medical resource utilization, and higher total healthcare costs, and they were more likely to augment their treatment in the 12 months after initiating the AAP. These patients may present a greater economic burden to payers. Further outcomes research and/or drug utilization reviews may be necessary to fully evaluate clinical and economic outcomes in adolescents with ADHD who are receiving AAPs.

Author Affiliations: Shire, Wayne, PA (VS, MHE); University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (SRP); Analysis Group Inc, Boston, MA (KAB, TMS, JX, EQW); and formerly at Shire, Wayne, PA (BR, PH, RSD).

Funding Source: This research was funded by Shire Development LLC, Wayne, PA.

Author Disclosures: Drs Sikirica and Erder are employees of Shire and hold stock or stock options with Shire. Drs Hodgkins, Robertson and Dammerman were employees of Shire during the time of this study. Drs Betts, Xie, and Wu, and Mr Samuelson are employees of Analysis Group, Inc, which received funding from Shire Development LLC for this study. Dr Pliszka reports consulting work for Shire and has received grants from Shire and Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. He has also provided expert testimony for Eli Lilly and Company

Authorship Information: Concept and design (VS, SRP, KAB, PH, TMS, JX, MHE, BR, EQW); acquisition of data (VS, KAB, JX, EQW); analysis and interpretation of data (VS, SRP, KAB, PH, TMS, JX, MHE, RSD, BR, EQW,); drafting of the manuscript (VS, SRP, KAB, TMS, MHE, RSD, BR); critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content (VS, SRP, KAB, PH, JX, MHE, RSD, BR, EQW); statistical analysis (KAB, TMS, JX, MHE, EQW); obtaining funding (VS); administrative, technical, or logistic support (VS, PH); and supervision (PH, MHE).

Address correspondence to: Vanja Sikirica, PharmD, MPH, Shire Development LLC, 725 Chesterbrook Blvd, Wayne, PA 19087. E-mail: vsikirica@shire.com.
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