Are Obese Patients Assisted in Losing Weight?
Published Online: April 17, 2014
Armina Sepehri, MPH; Vicente F. Gil-Guillén, MD, PhD; Antonio Palazón-Bru, MPH; Domingo Orozco-Beltrán, MD, PhD; Concepción Carratalá-Munuera, PhD; Ernesto Cortés Castell, PhD; and Mercedes Rizo-Baeza, PhD
Obesity is a very common disorder worldwide.1 In addition, obesity is associated with such healthcare problems as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD).2 Clinical practice guidelines recommend that healthcare professionals intervene to reduce the prevalence of this problem. These professionals should help those patients who need to lose weight, by means of personalized counselling about a healthy lifestyle (food and physical exercise).3-6
The Valencian Community is situated in the Mediterranean area of eastern Spain, and has a population of 4,518,126 inhabitants (figures from January 2004).7 Primary healthcare is given at health centers, and is universal and free for patients. The patients who attend these health centers are mainly women of older age with cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), and they are frequent visitors.8 In this community, the Valencia study analyzed the impact of obesity in the population. From 1991 to 2005, the prevalence of obesity rose from 7.3% to 12.4%, and was the most important problem for men aged 34 years and older and women aged 50 years and older. Also of note was that these patients had other CVRFs.9 In Spain, the health costs associated with obesity account for 7% of total healthcare costs. Over 35% of those costs correspond to obesity-related diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. The remaining 65% of costs are due to different types of cancer, kidney and liver disorders, sleep apnea, and even urinary incontinence—all related to obesity.10 Notable is the yield of bariatric surgery for both health and cost-benefit reasons, both in Spain and in other countries.11,12
A program of preventive activities was started in this Community at the end of 2003, aimed at the whole population over age 40 years. Each person was invited by mail to participate, and then contacted by phone to arrange an appointment at their health center. There, they underwent a preventive examination by medical and nursing personnel, and were given a report with the result of the examination together with the opportune recommendations; a copy of this report was also left at the health center. This program followed the recommendations of the Programme for Prevention and Health Promotion (PPHP) of the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine.3,13-15 Briefly, this program contains cardiovascular screening (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, etc), gynecological screening (cytology, mammography, etc), and a vaccination campaign (flu, tetanus, and pneumococcus).
Phillips et al in 2001 defined clinical inertia as failure by the physician to start or intensify treatment when this was indicated.16 A few years later, Andrade et al defined the concept of therapeutic inertia.17 Reflection about the definition of these concepts suggests that inertia not only influences the therapeutic process, but may also affect other parts of the clinical care process, such as personalized counseling about healthy lifestyle habits for those patients who need it.
As part of the preventive activities program, this study analyzed inertia associated with advising obese patients about a healthy lifestyle in order to lose weight, together with the possible associated factors. Others have also analyzed this behavior,18-26 assessing the advice and its association with a history of cardiovascular risk factors. We therefore wondered whether the healthcare professionals were paying more attention to already diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors rather than considering the current status of the patients. Accordingly, we calculated the cardiovascular risk of these patients using the REGICOR score,27 which is a calibration of one of the scales from the Framingham study designed for the Spanish population,28 and determined the association of this risk with the behavior of the healthcare professionals when aiding an obese patient to lose weight. The need for measures to improve the counselling of obese patients about weight loss can be seen from the results.
Design and Study Subjects
This cross-sectional study involved a sample of obese persons over age 40 years who participated in the preventive activities program of the Valencian Community during its first 6 months, and who wished to collaborate. Patients were considered to be obese if their body mass index (BMI) was at least 30 kg/m2. Any patient who was not obese, according to this definition, was excluded from this study.
Variables and Measurements
All the cardiovascular information recorded at the health examinations was studied. The main outcome measure was obesity inertia (OI). A patient was considered to have experienced OI if that patient’s healthcare professional failed to provide personalized advice about both diet and exercise together as a means to lose weight. The healthcare professional also recorded the following variables: gender; personal history of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke; BMI (in kg/m2); age (in years); blood pressure (BP) (systolic [SBP] and diastolic [DBP] in mm Hg); total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (in mmol/L).
In order to calculate BMI, the weight and height were measured with a calibrated scale and stadiometer, removing all objects that could affect the weight, including shoes. BP was measured following current recommendations with well-calibrated semiautomatic aneroid devices (mercury) in adequate conditions. The lipid profile was measured first thing in the morning after a minimum 8-hour fast with calibrated equipment. The personal history of disease, gender, and age was obtained during the patient interview and corroborated from the clinical records.
After gathering all the data, the following groups of variables were made: (1) BMI groups according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification: Class I obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and <35 kg/m2) and Class II and III obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2)29; and (2) personal history of CVD, or having had an acute myocardial infarction or stroke.
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