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The American Journal of Managed Care April 2016
Single- Versus Multiple-Tablet HIV Regimens: Adherence and Hospitalization Risk
S. Scott Sutton, PharmD; James W. Hardin, PhD; Thomas J. Bramley, RPh, PhD; Anna O. D’Souza, BPharm, PhD; and Charles L. Bennett, MD, PhD, MPP
Medicaid Managed Care Reduces Readmissions for Youths With Type 1 Diabetes
Kathleen Healy-Collier, CSSBB, DHA; Walter J. Jones, PhD; James E. Shmerling, DHA, FACHE; Kenneth R. Robertson, MD, MBA; and Robert J. Ferry, Jr, MD, FAAP
Assessing the Impact of an Integrated Care System on the Healthcare Expenditures of Children With Special Healthcare Needs
Mircea I. Marcu, PhD; Caprice A. Knapp, PhD; David Brown, PhD; Vanessa L. Madden, BSc; and Hua Wang, MS
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Jennifer King, PhD; Vaishali Patel, PhD; Eric Jamoom, PhD; and Catherine DesRoches, DrPH
Lost in Translation: Healthcare Utilization by Low-Income Workers Receiving Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance
Bruce W. Sherman, MD; Wendy D. Lynch, PhD; and Carol Addy, MD, MMSc
Patient Safety Intervention to Reduce Unnecessary Red Blood Cell Utilization
Scott Hasler, MD; Amanda Kleeman MS; Richard Abrams, MD; Jisu Kim, MD; Manya Gupta, MD; Mary Katherine Krause, MS; and Tricia J. Johnson, PhD
Currently Reading
Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Services on Outcomes and Costs for Indigent Patients With Diabetes
Marissa Escobar Quinones, PharmD, CDE; Margaret Youngmi Pio, PharmD, BCPS, CDE; Diem Hong Chow, PharmD, CDE; Elizabeth Moss, PharmD, CDE, BCACP; Jeffrey Lynn Hulstein, PharmD, CDE; Steven Micheal Bo
Costs for a Health Coaching Intervention for Chronic Care Management
Todd H. Wagner, PhD; Rachel Willard-Grace, MPH; Ellen Chen, MD; Thomas Bodenheimer, MD, MPH; and David H. Thom, MD, PhD, MPH
Four Steps for Improving the Consumer Healthcare Experience Across the Continuum of Care
Keith Roberts, MBA
Patient Perceptions of Clinician Self-Management Support for Chronic Conditions
Peter Cunningham, PhD

Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Services on Outcomes and Costs for Indigent Patients With Diabetes

Marissa Escobar Quinones, PharmD, CDE; Margaret Youngmi Pio, PharmD, BCPS, CDE; Diem Hong Chow, PharmD, CDE; Elizabeth Moss, PharmD, CDE, BCACP; Jeffrey Lynn Hulstein, PharmD, CDE; Steven Micheal Bo
Clinical pharmacy specialists impact patient care through improvements in clinical outcomes for diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia via clinical interventions and promotion of medication adherence.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To provide a review of the outcomes and costs in patients seen by Clinical Pharmacy Specialist (CPS) Certified Diabetes Educators in ambulatory care for diabetes management.

Study Design: A retrospective chart review.

Methods: All patients discharged by a CPS for diabetes management between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, were included.

Results: A total of 915 patients were discharged from CPS services. The majority of patients had type 2 diabetes (98.7%) and were female (63.1%), Hispanic (53.3%), and on average, were aged 56 years. The patients were seen by the CPS for approximately 5.3 face-to-face visits, and by their provider for 1.9 face-to-face visits. The average difference from baseline for glycated hemoglobin was –2.6%, while the average systolic and diastolic blood pressures improved by –8 mm Hg and –3 mm Hg, respectively. The major lipid parameters also reported improvement, averaging –23 mg/dL for total cholesterol, –54 mg/dL for triglycerides, –15 mg/dL for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, –23 mg/dL for non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C), and +0.8 mg/dL for HDL-C. Overall, the average difference from baseline to final visit for the numbers and costs of medications and diabetes supplies per patient increased slightly. Medication adherence also improved each year in patients with diabetes.

Conclusions: The CPSs directly impact patient care through improvements in clinical outcomes. They help patients achieve disease-state goals for diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia through a variety of clinical interventions and by promoting medication adherence. These data demonstrate the significant positive impact to the institution that clinical pharmacy services have in diabetes management.

Am J Manag Care. 2016;22(4):e147-e152

Take-Away Points

Pharmacy administrators requested information regarding the benefit of clinical pharmacy services offered at this institution. At the end of each year, information on clinical pharmacy visits were tracked and reviewed for various outcomes, including but not limited to disease-state goals, medication adherence, pharmacy interventions, and overall medication cost. A report is generated and provided to administrators in the pharmacy department, as well as presented at the hospital institution’s Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee meetings and others to provide executive management with a review of the impact of pharmacy services offered. This article provides a review of the benefits of clinical pharmacy specialist services through improved outcomes and cost containment.
Diabetes affects 25.8 million people in the United States; it is also the leading cause of kidney disease, amputations, and blindness, and a major cause of heart disease and strokes.1 Of the 25.8 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the United States, an estimated 1.8 million adults are living with diabetes in Texas.1,2 Parkland Health & Hospital System serves a large population of uninsured patients with diabetes in Dallas County. Currently, the pharmacy department employs 10 ambulatory care clinical pharmacy specialists (CPSs) who manage chronic diseases and provide drug therapy management under a collaborative practice agreement. Chronic diseases addressed include diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, anticoagulation, pain, thyroid disorders, heart failure, medication nonadherence, and polypharmacy.

Patients are seen by their primary care provider (PCP) and referred to a CPS for an assessment and management of their drug therapy. A typical visit with a CPS includes a detailed medication history, review of medication allergies and side effects, and review of clinical laboratory data. With this information, the CPS provides in-person management and addresses changes to diet and exercise, documents any improvements or changes in medication adherence, and modifies medication regimens as needed for the patient. Together with the patient, the CPS provides an individualized plan to develop behavioral modification goals that will improve diabetes outcomes. They also serve as instructors of Parkland’s “Healthy Living with Diabetes” patient education program, recognized by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)3; this group of CPSs are also Certified Diabetes Educators.

Additionally, the CPSs participate in administrative duties within the pharmacy department to improve patient care in a cost-effective manner. This includes drug-use evaluations, nonformulary medication reviews, drug information consults, medication therapy management programs, Pharmacy and Therapeutics subcommittee responsibilities, and teaching pharmacy students, residents, and other healthcare professionals. Clinical research is also a major component of the CPS program, including coordinating research projects, presenting posters, and providing educational programs.

The presence of CPSs is not standard in many healthcare institutions; however, the prevalence of these clinical pharmacy positions is growing. In order to demonstrate the benefit of clinical pharmacy services, the CPS group began in 2009 to review their annual outcomes, interventions, and medication costs. At the end of each year, various data on clinical outcomes, medication adherence, pharmacy interventions, and cost are collected and reviewed for patients who have been discharged from clinical pharmacy services performed by CPSs. A report is generated and provided to administrators in the pharmacy department, as well as presented at the institution’s Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee meetings and other meetings to provide a review of the impact of pharmacy services to executive management.

The purpose of this article is to provide a review of how the CPS demonstrates the benefit of pharmacy services through improved outcomes and cost containment in patients with diabetes in a large urban county healthcare system over a 4-year period (2010-2013).

METHODS
Patients discharged by a CPS for diabetes management between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013, were included in the analyses. Patients were discharged if they achieved improved diabetes control and the CPS determined the patient did not need to return for another follow-up visit. Only patients who filled medications at the institution outpatient pharmacies were included. Patient data were collected from their electronic health record. Pharmacy prescription data, adherence to medications, and cost were reviewed in the outpatient pharmacy system software program via CERNER, the institution’s ambulatory pharmacy dispensing program. Patient demographic data reviewed included age, gender, race, economic class, smoking status, level of education, past medical history, and duration of diabetes. The amount of CPS contact time was collected from the initial date of service to the date the last intervention was performed. The following types of visits were collected: CPS face-to-face visits, PCP visits, emergency department (ED) or hospital admissions for a diabetes-related event, diabetes specialty clinic visits, diabetes classes, and nutritionist visits.

Clinical outcomes related to diabetes and costs were also reported, including glycated hemoglobin (A1C), blood pressure (BP), lipid parameters, adherence to medications, and other standards of care measures.4-7 These were assessed at the initial visit and the last visit of each year for each patient. A paired 2-sample means t test using Analysis ToolPak version 14.0 (Microsoft Office Excel, Dallas, Texas) for the A1C was considered statistically significant at a P value of <.001. All interventions made by the CPS at each visit were collected, and included any medication changes, addition of aspirin, disease education, lifestyle education, identification of adverse drug events, ordering and interpreting laboratory data, smoking cessation education, pain management, immunizations, adherence counseling, use of adherence tools, and any referrals made for the patient.

The total number of medications and diabetes supplies were also reviewed at the initial and last intervention visits. Diabetes supplies included meter, strips, lancet device, lancets, alcohol prep pads, and syringes. The total cost of a 30-day supply of medications and diabetic supplies (using acquisition costs) was calculated at the initial visit and again at the last intervention visit for all patients discharged. Patients were noted to be adherent to therapy based on a review of the medication refill history from our pharmacy records in CERNER. Medication adherence was calculated as a ratio based on actual fills over expected fills for 3 months prior to the initial date of service, and was calculated again after the last intervention date. Patients were considered adherent to therapy if they met a value of 85%. The absolute difference in medication adherence was calculated to determine the improvements made by the patient at the time of discharge. There is a lack of clinical evidence and standards designating a certain threshold for adequate medication adherence, but this limit was used for the purposes of this analysis.8

RESULTS
Demographics

A total of 915 patients were discharged from CPS services from 2010 to 2013. The average age of patients seen was 56 years. The majority of patients had type 2 diabetes (98.7%) and were female (63.1%) and Hispanic (53.3%). On average, patients were seen by CPSs for 7.7 months for 5.3 face-to-face visits. The PCP also saw the patient an average of 1.9 times during the CPS intervention period. From 2010 to 2013, a total of 2 patients presented to the ED for a diabetes-related event (both for hypoglycemia), and none of the patients were hospitalized during this time period (Table 19).

Clinical Outcomes

An average difference of –2.6% from initial to final visit for A1C was noted from 2010 to 2013 (Table 2). The percentage of patients with diabetes achieving an A1C less than 7% increased significantly each year: by –2.1% in 2010, –2.7% in 2011, –2.7% in 2012, and –3.1% in 2014 (P <.001) (Figure 1). In addition, the average systolic and diastolic BPs improved by –8 mm Hg and –4 mm Hg, respectively. Overall, the major lipid parameters improved, averaging –23 mg/dL for total cholesterol, –54 mg/dL for triglycerides, –15 mg/dL for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), –23 mg/dL for non–high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C), and +0.8 mg/dL for HDL-C (Table 2).

Medications, Adherence, and Cost

Overall, the average change in number of medications per patient from baseline to final visit increased slightly by about +0.3 medications, and the average cost increased by $1.07. The average change in the total number of diabetes supplies per patient from baseline to final visit increased slightly, by about 0.5 supplies, and the average cost of diabetes supplies increased by $4.59 (Table 2). The absolute difference in medication adherence improved at the time of discharge by 42.8% in 2010, 43.5% in 2011, 42.8% in 2012, and 49% in 2013.

Interventions and Preventative Measures

The top 5 interventions made by the CPSs included medication changes, disease-state education, ordering and interpreting lab orders, medication adherence, and referrals (Figure 2). The CPSs also ensured that patients were on medication therapies, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, statin therapy, and aspirin as recommended by the ADA guidelines.4-7 The CPSs made referrals for patients to receive their annual diabetic eye exams, foot exams, and nephropathy screenings as needed.

DISCUSSION
During the 4-year review, the CPSs have been consistent in improving clinical outcomes and maintaining cost of medications in patients with diabetes who were discharged from the service. The patients discharged by a CPS from 2010 to 2013 were followed for an average of 5.3 months by the CPS. These patients had an average of 7.7 visits with a CPS and 1.9 visits with their provider. These services produced an average A1C lowering of 2.6% (Table 2). These improvements occurred when patients were treated as part of a medical team. In addition to improving diabetes outcomes, the CPSs also improved blood pressure and lipids, which are important comorbidities found in this patient population.

Additionally, CPSs improved patient medication adherence each year while containing costs of medications for the health system, noting only a small increase of 0.3 medications on average. The cost of 30-day diabetes supplies did increase slightly, by $4.59, which was most likely due to identifying more patients who needed diabetes testing supplies in order to perform self-monitoring of blood glucose. Through interventions made by the CPSs, these patients have consistently made significant improvements in adhering to their medication regimens. The CPSs help to enhance the collaborative approach in improving medication adherence that is needed for patients who are not following their medication regimens.8 In addition to improving medication adherence, the CPSs also adhere to the ADA standards of care measures for patients with diabetes. Through interventions such as medications changes, patient education, and drug therapy monitoring, ambulatory care CPSs have positively impacted the patients referred for diabetes management.

 
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