Inefficiencies in Osteoarthritis and Chronic Low Back Pain Management
Published Online: October 23, 2013
Margaret K. Pasquale, PhD; Robert Dufour, PhD; Ashish V. Joshi, PhD; Andrew T. Reiners, MD; David Schaaf, MD; Jack Mardekian, PhD; George A. Andrews, MD, MBA, CPE; Nick C. Patel, PharmD, PhD, BCPP; and James Harnett, PharmD, MS
Two forms of chronic pain, osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP), have exceptionally high prevalence and associated healthcare costs in the United States. An estimated 13.9% of adults 25 years and older and 33.6% of adults 65 years and older are affected by OA1; and roughly a quarter of all adults in the United States suffer from CLBP during their lifetime.2 Associated healthcare costs for these diseases have been estimated at $48 billion for OA and $40 billion for back problems in 2005; collectively, musculoskeletal conditions ranked as the third-highest spending category among medical conditions in the United States.3 Given the high prevalence of and healthcare spending on musculoskeletal conditions, it is crucial for providers and payers to provide appropriate and adequate pain management for these conditions. Exposure of potentially inefficient provider practices or patient behavior can aid providers and payers in providing appropriate care and reducing costs.
Sources of inefficiencies in pain management include underdiagnosis or inappropriate diagnosis, use of unnecessary procedures and tests,4-6 and improper use of medications.7 Although examples of such inefficiencies are numerous, very few studies have indicated how to identify patients experiencing suboptimal pain management and to quantify their associated healthcare costs. Goldberg and colleagues8 published measures of inefficiencies developed by an expert clinical panel (Patient Population Assessment to Identify Need [PAIN]) concerning pain management in patients with OA and/or low back pain (LBP). These indicators were then overlaid on a managed care database to identify members who were likely in need of better pain management.8 Additional analysis by Goldberg and colleagues9 demonstrated that total per member per month pain-related costs of members identified with any PAIN indicator of inefficiency ($843) were significantly higher than those for members not identified with an indicator of inefficiency ($121).
The objective of the current study was to use Goldberg and colleagues’ PAIN indicators as a guide to develop inefficiency measures applicable to a specific health insurance provider for Medicare members with OA and/or CLBP. With the information provided in this study, providers and payers will be able to focus on identified members to determine whether their painful conditions are being managed adequately and efficiently.
This study utilized data from Humana’s SAS database, containing enrollment, medical, and pharmacy claims data for Humana’s Medicare membership. All data sources were merged using de-identified member identification. The finalized protocol was approved by an independent institutional review board.
This was a retrospective cohort study using a claims database to evaluate OA and CLBP patients identified as having suboptimal management of pain based on inefficiency measures of prescription drug and medical service use (Table 1). Internal experts from Humana’s clinical and drug utilization review programs were consulted to review the Goldberg PAIN indicators8 and revise them based on clinical judgment. Patients with OA and/or CLBP were identified from January 1, 2008, to June 30, 2010. Each member’s date of first OA or LBP diagnosis was considered to be the index date, and members were required to have 365 days of continuous enrollment preindex and 365 days postindex.
Members 18 years and older in Humana’s Medicare Advantage plans were included if they were identified with 2 or more claims for OA on different days and/or 2 or more claims for LBP in the primary diagnosis position that were 90 or more days apart to ensure the “chronic” nature of pain. The following International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code was used to identify OA: 715.xx. ICD-9-CM codes for LBP were 721.3, 721.42, 721.5-721.9x, 722.1x-722.2, 722.30, 722.32, 722.52, 722.6, 722.70, 722.73, 722.80, 722.83, 722.90, 722.93, 724.00, 724.02, 724.09, 724.2-724.6, 724.8, 724.9, 737.10-737.19, 737.2x, 737.3, 737.30, 738.4, 738.5, 793.3, 793.4, 756.10-756.19, 805.4, 805.6, 805.8, 846.x, 847.2, 847.3, 847.9, 739.3, 739.4, and 996.4.
Members were excluded if they had pregnancy (ICD-9- CM 630.xx-679.xx, V22.xx, and V23.xx), cancer (ICD-9- CM 140.xx-172.xx and 174.xx-208.xx), organ transplant (ICD-9-CM V42.xx), rheumatoid arthritis (ICD-9-CM 714. xx), ankylosing spondylitis (ICD-9-CM 720.xx), human immunodeficiency virus infection (ICD-9-CM 042.xx), or sickle cell anemia (ICD-9-CM 282.6x) in the first or second diagnosis position. Members were also excluded if they resided in skilled nursing homes.
Claims data of Humana Medicare members with OA, CLBP, or both conditions (hereafter OA/CLBP) were analyzed to identify individuals who met criteria for any inefficiency measures in Table 1. The count and percentage of members identified with each inefficiency measure during the postindex period were determined. Demographic and clinical characteristics ascertained during the preindex period were compared between members with and without inefficiencies identified postindex. Variables included age, sex, geographic region, top 10 comorbidities by 4-digit ICD-9-CM codes, psychiatric comorbidities, and the RxRisk-V comorbidity score.The RxRisk-V score10-14 is derived from drug claims data and thus can be applied to data from a narrow window of claims rather than the broader window typically necessary for medical–claims-based comorbidity scores.15 Accordingly, means were compared using 2-sample t tests, and count variables were compared using x2 tests.
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