Supplement
Issue:
Improving Treatment Success Rates for Type 2 Diabetes: Balancing Safety, Cost, and Outcome [CME/CPE]
Volume:
17
Number:
14 Suppl
Release date: November 15, 2011  |  Expiration date: November 30, 2012
Estimated time to complete activity: 1.25 hours
Type of activity: Knowledge-based  |  Media: Journal supplement

This activity is supported by an educational grant from Novo Nordisk, Inc.

Intended Audience
This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of managed care pharmacy directors, clinical pharmacists, quality directors, medical directors, and other healthcare professionals involved in the management of patients with diabetes.

Statement of Educational Need/Program Overview
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing at an alarming rate, affecting up to 8% of the US population, with the majority of these patients cared for in primary care settings. At the same time, there are new treatment options emerging, as well as evolving treatment algorithms, which stress the need to treat early and intensively to reduce the risks of diabetes-related complications. However, optimal glycemic control remains elusive for many health plan members with diabetes despite the increasing number of antidiabetic medications. Proper glycemic control of type 2 diabetes is essential for the prevention of long-term complications of diabetes and to reduce overall healthcare costs. If payers and managed care organizations (MCOs) can help narrow the wide gap between recommendations on evidence-based diabetes care and actual care delivered to patients, thousands of patients could avoid heart attacks, strokes, amputations, blindness, or end-stage renal disease each year.

Educational Objectives
After completing this activity, the participant should be better able to:
  • Compare the most recent safety and efficacy data of incretin-based therapies with other type 2 diabetes treatment options on glucose and further aspects of diabetes pathology
  • Explain how evolving type 2 diabetes treatment guidelines can integrate with a managed care algorithm for optimal value of therapeutic options
  • Apply the use of decision support tools, such as comparative effectiveness analyses, that enable evidence-based treatment decisions for patients with type 2 diabetes in a managed care setting
  • Use techniques for MCOs to determine the cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes therapies
  • Appraise emerging pharmacy benefit management methods, including value-based designs, that MCOs can implement to improve the overall value of antidiabetic treatments
  • Provide accurate and appropriate counsel as part of the treatment team

Physician Continuing Medical Education
Accreditation Statement / Credit Designation
This activity has been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of Postgraduate Institute for Medicine and Impact Education, LLC. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

The Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.25 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Pharmacist Continuing Education
Accreditation Statement / Credit Designation
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine designates this continuing education activity for 1.25 contact hours (0.125 CEUs) of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. (Universal Activity Number 0809-9999-11-079-H01-P)

Method of Participation and Request for Credit
There are no fees for participating and receiving CME/CE credit for this activity. During the period November 15, 2011, through November 30, 2012, participants must read the learning objectives and faculty disclosures and study the educational activity.

Postgraduate Institute for Medicine supports Green CME by offering your Request for Credit online. If you wish to receive acknowledgment for completing this activity, please complete the posttest and evaluation on www.cmeuniversity.com. On the navigation menu, click on “Find Post-test/Evaluation by Course” and search by course ID 8169. Upon registering and successfully completing the posttest with a score of 70% or better and the activity evaluation, your certificate will be made available immediately. Processing credit requests online will reduce the amount of paper used by nearly 100,000 sheets per year.

Faculty
Lawrence Blonde, MD, FACP, FACE

Director, Ochsner Diabetes Clinical Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Ochsner Medical Center - New Orleans, LA

Viktor V. Chirikov, MS
Graduate Student, Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy - Baltimore, MD

Fadia T. Shaya, PhD, MPH
Professor, Center on Drug and Public Policy, Department of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy - Baltimore, MD

Albert L. Tzeel, MD, MHSA, FACPE
National Medical Director, HumanaOne, Humana Inc - Milwaukee, WI

Disclosures of Conflicts of Interest
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) assesses conflict of interest with its instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of CME activities. All relevant conflicts of interest that are identified are thoroughly vetted by PIM for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies utilized in the activity, and patient care recommendations. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high quality CME activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of a commercial interest.

Faculty Disclosures
Within the past 12 months, the faculty reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:

Lawrence Blonde, MD, FACP, FACE
Consultant/advisory board member: Amylin, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, GlaxoSmithKline, Halozyme Therapeutics, Johnson & Johnson, MannKind Corporation, Merck & Co, Inc, Novo Nordisk, Orexigen, Roche, sanofi-aventis, Santarus, Inc, VeroScience
Grants/research support: Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, Novo Nordisk, Roche, sanofi-aventis Lecturer: AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Daiichi Sankyo, Merck & Co, Inc, Novo Nordisk, Santarus, Inc, VeroScience
Receipt of payment for involvement in the preparation of this manuscript: Novo Nordisk
Stock ownership (spouse): Amylin, Pfizer

Viktor V. Chirikov, MS, has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Fadia T. Shaya, PhD, MPH, has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Albert L. Tzeel, MD, MHSA, FACPE
Consultant: Genentech, Inc

The planners and managers reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have had with commercial interests related to the content of this CME activity:

Steve Casebeer, MBA; Jan Hixon, RN, BSN, MA; Trace Hutchison, PharmD; Julia Kimball, RN, BSN; Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD; Jan Schultz, RN, MSN, CCMEP; and Patricia Staples, MSN, NP-C, CCRN, hereby state that they or their spouse/life partner have not had any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this activity of any amount during the past 12 months.

The publishing staff at The American Journal of Managed Care has no relevant financial relationships to disclose. Signed disclosures are on file at the office of The American Journal of Managed Care, Plainsboro, New Jersey.

Disclosure of Unlabeled Use
This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA. Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM), Impact Education, LLC (IE), and Novo Nordisk, Inc do not recommend the use of any agent outside of the labeled indications.

The opinions expressed in the educational activity are those of the faculty and do not necessarily represent the views of PIM, IE, or Novo Nordisk. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.

System Requirements
PC-based participants
Required: Windows® 7, Vista, XP, 2003 Server or 2000

Macintosh®-based participants
Required: Mac OS® X 10.4.11 (Tiger®) or newer

Provider Contact Information: 
Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education
666 Plainsboro Road, Suite 356
Plainsboro, NJ 08536
Phone: 800-597-6372  |  Fax: 609-228-5872

© 2011 Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC
ARTICLES
Albert L. Tzeel, MD, MHSA, FACPE
Fadia T. Shaya, PhD, MPH; and Viktor V. Chirikov, MS
Lawrence Blonde, MD, FACP, FACE
AUTHOR INDEX
CE/CME QUIZ