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The Importance of Considering the Social Determinants of Health

Sophia Bernazzani is a health care journalist. She has a background in healthcare and previously worked in health marketing and advocacy. She's passionate about nutrition and sustainability and studied global public health at the George Washington University.
Social determinants have a major impact on health outcomes—especially for the most vulnerable populations. Factors such as a patient’s education, income level and environment must be considered when providing treatment and care.

As the Kaiser Family Foundation noted in recent research: “Based on a meta-analysis of nearly 50 studies, researchers found that social factors, including education, racial segregation, social supports, and poverty accounted for over a third of total deaths in the United States in a year.”

It is therefore essential for primary care providers—such as nurse practitioners educated in FNP programs—to consider social determinants of health to enable more holistic, comprehensive healthcare for the patients and families they serve.

Here, we’ll examine how social determinants of health impact health outcomes and how we can build a better healthcare system together. 

The Impact of Social Determinants of Health

According to the CDC, it has been well-established that poverty inhibits access to healthy foods and safe neighborhoods, and that higher levels of education influence better health. The impact of such factors on health is defined by Healthy People 2020 as social determinants of health: “Social determinants of health are conditions in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks.” When resources are available to overcome negative social determinants of health, they can have a significant impact on population health outcomes. 

However, when such resources are lacking, social determinants can create undesirable circumstances, such as disparities and discrimination. Social epidemiologist Nancy Krieger referred to the influence of discrimination as “embodied inequality,” which includes dynamics of social injustice that lead to poor health outcomes and may impact multiple generations. Even when discrimination is absent, Krieger said that populations “would continue to exhibit persistent disparities reflecting prior inequities.”

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