Stroke is a neurologic event related to cerebrovascular disease. It is associated with high rates of disability, handicap, and mortality. Initial stroke is often preceded by transient ischemic attack (TIA), and patients who suffer stroke or TIA are at significantly increased risk of recurrent stroke. Immediate treatment following stroke can reduce levels of poststroke impairment and subsequent costs for hospitalization and rehabilitation. These costs continue to increase, as does the prevalence of stroke in the United States. Neuroimaging studies can help clinicians differentiate between TIA and stroke and identify the subtype of an initial ischemic stroke. Targeting secondary prevention therapies—including antiplatelet agents—to the ischemic stroke subtype and individual patient risk factors affords an excellent opportunity for reducing the burden of stroke on patients, caregivers, and managed care. This 3-part supplement discusses the impact of stroke and summarizes available options for treating patients with stroke or TIA, drawing from the most recent clinical literature, evidence-based guidelines, and opinions of various specialists in the field.