Attainment of Diabetes-Related Quality Measures With Canagliflozin Versus Sitagliptin

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Supplements and Featured Publications, Opportunities for Improving Attainment of Quality Measures in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Volume 20, Issue 1 Suppl

Objective: To evaluate attainment of diabetes-related quality measures with canagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, versus sitagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Study design: This post hoc analysis included data from a 52-week, randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study comparing canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg in patients with T2DM on metformin plus sulfonylurea.

Methods: Individual and composite diabetes-related quality measures based on glycated hemoglobin (A1C), blood pressure (BP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, body mass index (BMI), and body weight were assessed in the overall population and a subgroup with a baseline BMI of at least 25 kg/m2.

Results: At baseline, the proportion of patients meeting criteria for quality measures was similar between groups. At week 52, more canagliflozin-treated patients achieved quality measures of an A1C less than 8% or less than 7%, and fewer canagliflozintreated patients had an A1C greater than 9%, compared with sitagliptin. More patients achieved BP measurement less than 140/90 mm Hg, less than 140/80 mm Hg, or less than 130/80 mm Hg with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin. The proportion of patients with an LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL was similar between groups. More patients had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 and a greater than 10 lb (4.5 kg) weight loss from baseline, and a BMI less than 30 kg/m2 at week 52, with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin. A greater proportion of patients achieved composite end points based on A1C, BP, and LDL-C level with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin. Similar results were observed in the subgroup of patients with a baseline BMI of at least 25 kg/m2.

Conclusion: In this study involving patients with T2DM on metformin plus sulfonylurea, after 52 weeks, patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated better attainment of individual and composite diabetes-related quality measures compared with patients treated with sitagliptin 100 mg.

(Am J Manag Care. 2014;20:S16-S24)Diabetes is a chronic disease associated with a variety of comorbidities, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiovascular (CV) disease. In 2010, diabetes affected approximately 25.8 million people in the United States.1 Among diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults, approximately 90% to 95% are type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).1 While a primary goal of T2DM management is improvement of glycemic control, as measured by the lowering of glycated hemoglobin (A1C), reductions in blood pressure (BP) and body weight and improvements in lipid control are also beneficial for reducing the risk of comorbidities and diabetes-related complications.1-3 The American Diabetes Association currently recommends attainment of A1C less than 7%, BP less than 140/80 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level less than 100 mg/dL for most adults with T2DM, with potential for individualization of treatment targets based on patient characteristics and medical history.3 Despite a range of available antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs), evidence suggests that nearly half of patients with diabetes in the United States do not meet recommended diabetes treatment goals.4

As the US healthcare system transitions from a fee-for-service model to one in which compensation is based on optimizing patient outcomes, quality measures (ie, standards used to assess achievement of improved patient outcomes) are becoming an increasingly important mechanism for evaluating quality of care that allows for comparisons across treatments, healthcare delivery systems, and patient populations. Diabetes is one of the first diseases for which quality measures have been adopted due to its prevalence and the number of measurable parameters related to diabetes care,4 including A1C, BP, and LDL-C level. A number of diabetes-related quality measures, including A1C greater than 9.0% (poor control) or less than 8.0% (good control), BP less than 140/90 or 140/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL, have been specified for use in the 2013 Health Effectiveness Data and Information Set measures developed by the National Committee on Quality Assurance.5 Quality measures related to body mass index (BMI) and body weight are also relevant, as approximately 80% of patients with T2DM are overweight or obese and weight loss is an important aspect of T2DM management.2 The Health Resources and Services Administration’s Health Disparities Collaboratives measures include a measure of the proportion of patients with a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 who have lost 10 lb (4.5 kg) at any time in the last 12 months6; BMI less than 30 kg/m2 is also a quality measure for diabetes approved by Better Health’s Clinical Advisory Committee.7 In addition to these quality measures, diabetes-related composite quality measures that combine individual quality measures to provide an overall assessment of patient outcomes have also been used.8-11 HealthPartners, the largest consumer-governed health plan in the United States, has established a set of composite measures for diabetes known as the D5 that includes: A1C less than 7%, BP less than 130/80 mm Hg, LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL, no use of tobacco, and daily use of aspirin (for patients aged 41-75 years).10 Another set of composite measures developed by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services includes A1C less than 8%, BP less than 140/90 mm Hg, LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL, no use of tobacco, and use of aspirin.11

Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with T2DM.12-20 In phase 3 studies, canagliflozin treatment provided improved glycemic control, clinically meaningful weight loss, and BP reductions in patients with T2DM as monotherapy or added on to a variety of background AHAs.12-17,20 In a 52-week, phase 3 study in patients with T2DM on background metformin plus sulfonylurea,15 canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated noninferiority, and, in a subsequent pre-specified assessment, superiority to sitagliptin 100 mg in reducing A1C. Canagliflozin reduced mean A1C from a baseline value of 8.1% to 7.1% at week 52, whereas sitagliptin was associated with a reduction from 8.1% to 7.5%. Canagliflozin 300 mg provided significant reductions in body weight and systolic BP compared with sitagliptin 100 mg (P <.001 for both comparisons). Canagliflozin 300 mg was also associated with a greater decrease from baseline in diastolic BP, and a greater increase from baseline in LDL-C level, compared with sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in this patient population, with no notable increase in the incidence of hypoglycemia compared with sitagliptin (43.2% and 40.7%, respectively).

This paper reports findings from a post hoc analysis of data from this 52-week study and evaluates the attainment of individual and composite diabetes-related quality measures with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg in the overall patient population. Quality measures assessed in this analysis have been endorsed by the National Quality Forum and have also been used in studies of other AHAs.21-24 Results are also reported from assessments of quality measures attainment in a subgroup of patients with a baseline BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 (classified as overweight or obese based on National Institutes of Health criteria25), as this patient population represents the majority of patients with T2DM2 and has been reported to have a greater contribution to healthcare costs.25

MethodsStudy Design and Patient Population

This 52-week, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 study compared canagliflozin 300 mg with sitagliptin 100 mg as add-on therapy to metformin plus sulfonylurea in patients with T2DM. Details of the study design, including patient inclusion and exclusion criteria, have previously been reported.15 Briefly, eligible patients were men or women with T2DM at least 18 years old who had an A1C between 7.0% and 10.5% and taking metformin plus sulfonylurea at maximally or near-maximally effective doses (metformin: >2000 mg/day or >1500 mg/day if unable to tolerate a higher dose; sulfonylurea: at least half-maximal labeled dose). Those who had a repeated fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of at least 300 mg/dL; a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus, CV disease, or uncontrolled hypertension; or estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 55 mL/min/1.73 m2 (or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 if based on restriction in the metformin local label) were excluded. No glycemic rescue therapy was provided in this study, and patients meeting protocol-specified glycemic withdrawal criteria were discontinued from the study.

The study was conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki and are consistent with Good Clinical Practice and applicable regulatory requirements. Approval of the study protocol and amendments was obtained from institutional review boards and independent ethics committees for participating centers. All patients provided informed, written consent prior to participation.

Assessments and Statistical Analyses

The pre-specified primary efficacy end point of the clinical study was the change in A1C from baseline to week 52; these data have previously been reported.15 Efficacy data at week 52 were used in post hoc analyses evaluating the proportion of patients achieving diabetes-related quality measures. Individual quality measures (based on A1C, BP, LDL-C level, BMI, and body weight) and composite quality measures evaluated in this analysis are shown in Table 1. The use of tobacco or aspirin was not included in quality measures evaluated in this analysis because neither canagliflozin nor sitagliptin was expected to affect aspirin or tobacco use measures.

Analyses were performed using the modified intent-totreat (mITT) population consisting of randomized patients who received at least 1 dose of study drug, and a subgroup of these patients with baseline BMI of at least 25 kg/m2. For all analyses, the last observation carried forward approach was used to impute missing data for consistency with the primary analysis method for pre-specified end points in the clinical study. Statistical comparisons of canagliflozin 300 mg versus sitagliptin 100 mg were not performed for these post hoc analyses because they were not pre-specified; therefore, no P values are reported. However, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the between-group differences are reported; odds ratios (ORs) (based on a logistic regression model with treatment and study as factors and baseline value as a covariate) and associated 95% CIs for the comparison of canagliflozin versus sitagliptin are also presented.

ResultsPatients

Details regarding patient disposition and baseline characteristics for the overall population of this study have previously been reported.15 Briefly, 755 of the 756 patients randomized in the clinical study were included in the mITT analysis set, and 464 (61%) completed the 52-week treatment period. The most common reason for discontinuation was meeting glycemic withdrawal criteria (10.6% and 22.5% with canagliflozin and sitagliptin, respectively15), as rescue therapy was not provided in this study. Baseline demographic and disease characteristics were generally similar between the canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg groups. Patients had mild to moderate hyperglycemia at baseline, with a mean A1C of 8.1% and a mean duration of T2DM of 9.6 years. At baseline, mean systolic BP was 130.7 mm Hg, mean diastolic BP was 78.9 mm Hg, and mean LDL-C level was 98.7 mg/ dL. Patients had a mean baseline body weight of 88.3 kg and mean baseline BMI of 31.6 kg/m2, with 53% of patients being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2 based on National Institutes of Health criterion25). Many patients were on background antihypertensive medications, with 65% taking agents that act on the renin-angiotensin system, 21% on beta-blocking agents, 21% on calcium channel blockers, and 32% on diuretics; 54% of patients were taking lipid-modifying medications, including statins. There were no meaningful differences between treatment groups in the use of antihypertensive and lipid-modifying medications at baseline; adjustments to these medication regimens were to have been made during the pretreatment phase to limit the need for adjustments during the doubleblind treatment phase. Baseline demographic and disease characteristics were also generally similar between treatment groups in the BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 subgroup (n = 642; see eAppendix Table available online at www.ajmc.com).

Quality Measures in the Overall Population

Individual quality measures

At baseline, there were no notable differences between canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg in the proportion of patients who met individual quality measures criteria related to A1C, BP, LDL-C level, and BMI (Table 2). At week 52, more patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg achieved an A1C less than 8% (85.0% vs 66.0%) and less than 7% (47.6% vs 35.3%); fewer canagliflozin-treated patients had an A1C greater than 9% compared with those who received sitagliptin (1.9% vs 8.5%). A higher proportion of patients in the canagliflozin 300 mg group achieved a BP less than 140/90 mm Hg, less than 140/80 mm Hg, and less than 130/80 mm Hg at week 52 (84.5%, 62.4%, and 53.3%, respectively) compared with the sitagliptin 100 mg group (71.9%, 48.2%, and 38.4%, respectively). For all comparisons of canagliflozin versus sitagliptin in A1C- and BP-related quality measures, the 95% CIs for between-group differences excluded 0 and the 95% CIs for ORs excluded 1 (Table 2). The proportion of patients who achieved an LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL was similar with canagliflozin 300 mg (47.9%) and sitagliptin 100 mg (54.4%) at week 52 (the 95% CIs for between-group differences included 0 and the 95% CIs for ORs included 1). Among patients who had an LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL at baseline, 76.5% and 80.1% still had an LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL at week 52 with canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg, respectively. At week 52, more patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg had a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 and a greater than 10 lb (4.5 kg) weight loss from baseline (16.3% vs 6.5%), and had a BMI less than 30 kg/m2 (54.1% vs 44.4%). For comparisons of canagliflozin versus sitagliptin in BMI- and body weight—related quality measures, the 95% CIs for between-group differences excluded 0 and the 95% CIs for ORs excluded 1 (Table 2).

Composite quality measures

No differences related to composite quality measures were observed at baseline between patients who received canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg (Table 3). At week 52, the proportion of patients who achieved the composite quality measure of an A1C less than 7%, BP less than 130/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL was higher with canagliflozin 300 mg than with sitagliptin 100 mg (15.7% vs 8.8%; 95% CI for the between-group difference excluded 0 and 95% CI for the OR excluded 1). The proportion of patients who achieved this composite quality measure, as well as several individual quality measures, is shown in Figure 1. The proportion of patients who achieved a similar composite quality measure with a less stringent BP criterion (A1C <7%, BP <140/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C level <100 mg/ dL) was numerically higher with canagliflozin 300 mg than with sitagliptin 100 mg (16.5% vs 11.6%); the 95% CI for the between-group difference included 0, but the 95% CI for the OR excluded 1 (Table 3). For 2 other composite quality measures that both had criteria of an A1C less than 8% and an LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL with a BP criterion of less than 140/80 or less than 140/90 mm Hg, attainment was higher with canagliflozin 300 mg (27.8% and 35.5%, respectively) versus sitagliptin 100 mg (20.4% and 27.8%, respectively; 95% CIs for the between-group differences excluded 0 and 95% CIs for the ORs excluded 1). Differences (95% CIs) between canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg in the proportion of patients who met quality measures at baseline and achieved quality measures at week 52 are shown in Figure 2.

Quality Measures in the BMI of at Least 25 kg/m2 Subgroup

Findings on attainment of individual and composite quality measures in the subgroup of patients with a baseline BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 were generally similar to those in the overall population (Tables 4 and 5). A higher proportion of patients achieved quality measures related to A1C with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg (<8%, 85.2% vs 64.0%; <7%, 48.7% vs 31.8%); the proportion of patients with A1C greater than 9% was 1.9% and 8.9% with canagliflozin and sitagliptin, respectively. Similarly, more patients treated with canagliflozin than those treated with sitagliptin achieved quality measures related to BP, BMI, and body weight. Achievement of an LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL was similar with canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg. For all comparisons of canagliflozin versus sitagliptin, with the exception of that for LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL, 95% CIs for the between-group differences excluded 0 and 95% CIs for the ORs excluded 1 (Table 4). Better attainment was observed with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg for all 4 composite quality measures assessed (Table 5), with 95% CIs for the between-group differences excluding 0 and 95% CIs for the ORs excluding 1 for all comparisons.

Discussion

This post hoc analysis evaluated the attainment of individual and composite diabetes-related quality measures with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg using data from a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 trial. The quality measures assessed in this analysis were endorsed by the National Quality Forum and have also been used in studies of other AHAs.21-24 The use of data from a head-to-head, active comparator study allowed for direct comparison of efficacy between canagliflozin and sitagliptin. Canagliflozin 300 mg provided better attainment of individual quality measures related to A1C, BP, BMI, and body weight compared with sitagliptin 100 mg in patients with T2DM inadequately controlled on metformin plus sulfonylurea. In addition, a greater proportion of patients achieved composite quality measures based on A1C, BP, and LDL-C level in the canagliflozin group compared with the sitagliptin group. These findings are consistent with previously reported results from this study demonstrating greater improvements in glycemic control and greater reductions in body weight and systolic BP with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg.15 Notably, the greater reduction in A1C observed with canagliflozin compared with sitagliptin in this study was not associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia.

Canagliflozin has been associated with increases from baseline in LDL-C level across phase 3 studies.12-16,20 In the study on which the present analysis was based, a greater increase from baseline in LDL-C level was observed with canagliflozin 300 mg compared with sitagliptin 100 mg.15 However, attainment of LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL was generally similar with canagliflozin and sitagliptin in this analysis. Thus, the proportion of patients achieving the LDL-C target was comparable with canagliflozin and sitagliptin, despite the increase in LDL-C levels observed with canagliflozin versus sitagliptin. In addition to increases in LDL-C level, increases in HDL-C level were also seen with canagliflozin compared with sitagliptin; both treatment groups were associated with modest increases in triglycerides, as well as increases in non—HDL-C that were smaller than the LDL-C increases, with no notable difference between groups in the change in LDL-C/HDL-C ratio.15 There were no notable differences between treatment groups in the use of lipid-modifying medications (including statins).

Patients treated with canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated better attainment of composite quality measures (across various definitions) compared with patients treated with sitagliptin 100 mg in this analysis. In a previously published, cross-sectional population survey (the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] from 2007 to 2010), 18.8% of participants achieved the most restrictive composite measure of A1C less than 7%, BP less than 130/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C level less than 100 mg/dL.26 An important consideration regarding these findings is that NHANES participants included patients with T2DM across the spectrum of disease and AHA use, including those with more recent onset of T2DM and those who had A1C less than 7% at baseline. Thus, the proportion achieving quality measures may be expected to be higher among NHANES participants compared with patients enrolled in this clinical trial, who were selected for having inadequate glycemic control on metformin plus sulfonylurea. In this population, the proportion of patients who met A1C less than 7%, BP less than 130/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C level less than 100 mg/ dL at baseline was 0.8% and 1.6% in the canagliflozin 300 mg and sitagliptin 100 mg groups, respectively, and increased to 15.7% and 8.8%, respectively, at week 52. Similarly, the proportion of patients who met A1C less than 8%, BP less than 140/90 mm Hg, and LDL-C level less than100 mg/ dL with canagliflozin and sitagliptin increased from 17.8% and 21.0%, respectively, at baseline to 35.5% and 27.8%, respectively, at week 52. Although the proportion of patients achieving composite quality measures with canagliflozin was numerically low, when applied to the total number of individuals living with T2DM, this would still translate to an improvement in treatment outcome for a large number of patients. Additionally, as treatment with canagliflozin 300 mg provided clinically meaningful improvements from baseline in efficacy parameters including A1C, FPG, body weight, and systolic BP in the clinical study,15 patients who did not achieve the thresholds defined by quality measures with canagliflozin treatment may still have had improvements in these parameters.

Assessment of quality measures attainment was also performed in a subgroup of patients with a baseline BMI of at least 25 kg/m2, who constituted approximately 85% of the overall population. Patients with a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2 are of interest because overweight and obese individuals are at an increased risk of developing comorbidities and may have higher healthcare costs,25 and because of the prevalence of obesity among patients with T2DM.2 Findings in this subgroup of patients were generally similar to those in the overall population, suggesting that canagliflozin treatment is also effective in patients with T2DM who are overweight or obese.

A limitation of this analysis was the overall rate of discontinuation in the clinical study (38.5%), which was higher than that seen in other phase 3 studies of canagliflozin.12-17,20 This was related to the study design, which did not provide glycemic rescue therapy and discontinued patients who met pre-specified glycemic criteria.15 The discontinuation rate observed with sitagliptin in this study was generally consistent with that observed in another 52-week study of sitagliptin that also did not provide glycemic rescue therapy.27 Additionally, this analysis was based on data from a single study that included only the 300-mg dose of canagliflozin. Further analysis including the canagliflozin 100-mg dose, in patients on different background AHAs, in special patient populations (eg, older patients or those with renal impairment), in studies of longer duration, and in studies with other active comparators, would be helpful for further understanding of the treatment effects of canagliflozin and how they compare with those of other AHAs. Additional studies in a real-world clinical setting will also be useful for further evaluation of the attainment of quality measures with canagliflozin and its comparative effectiveness versus other AHAs.

Conclusion

Canagliflozin 300 mg demonstrated better attainment of individual and composite diabetes-related quality measures compared with sitagliptin 100 mg, suggesting that canagliflozin may provide improved health outcomes relative to sitagliptin in the treatment of patients with T2DM. These findings may help inform the decisions of physicians, patients, and payers in the selection of treatment options for the management of T2DM.Acknowledgments

This analysis was funded by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, and was based on data from a study supported by Janssen Research & Development, LLC. Editorial support was provided by Kimberly Dittmar, PhD, of MedErgy and was funded by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC. Canagliflozin has been developed by Janssen Research & Development, LLC, in collaboration with Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

Author affiliations: Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ (RAB, SCM, MFTR); Ochsner Diabetes Clinical Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (LB); Medical Affairs, Biostatistics, Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ (CVD); Janssen Research & Development, LLC (GEM).

Funding source: This supplement was supported by Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Author disclosures: Dr Bailey reports employment with Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC (a Johnson & Johnson company), and reports stock ownership with Johnson & Johnson. Dr Blonde reports receipt of grants and research support from Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk, and Sanofi, and reports serving as a consultant for Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Eisai; GlaxoSmithKline; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Merck & Co, Inc; Novo Nordisk; Pfizer; Sanofi; and Santarus. Dr Blonde also reports receipt of lecture fees from Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Bristol-Myers Squibb/ AstraZeneca; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Institute, LLC; Merck & Co, Inc; Novo Nordisk; Sanofi; Santarus; and Vivus, Inc. Dr Damaraju reports employment and stock ownership with Janssen Research & Development, LLC. Mr Martin reports employment with Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC (a Johnson & Johnson company), and stock ownership with Johnson & Johnson. Dr Meininger reports employment with Janssen Research & Development, LLC, and stock ownership with Johnson & Johnson and Merck & Co, Inc. Ms Rupnow reports employment and meeting/conference attendance on behalf of Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC (a Johnson & Johnson company), and reports stock ownership with Johnson & Johnson.

Authorship information: Concept and design (RAB, SCM, MFTR); acquisition of data (RAB, SCM, GEM); analysis and interpretation of data (RAB, LB, CVD, SCM, GEM, MFTR); drafting of the manuscript (RAB, LB, SCM, GEM, MFTR); critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content (RAB, LB, CVD, SCM, GEM, MFTR); statistical analysis (CVD, MFTR); provision of study materials or patients (GEM); obtaining funding (MFTR); and supervision (RAB, MFTR).

Address correspondence to: Robert A. Bailey, MD, 1000 US Route 202 South, Raritan, NJ 08869. E-mail: rbailey5@its.jnj.com.

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