Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and often ocular surface damage. This supplement to The American Journal of Managed Care discusses the prevalence of DED and the economic burden associated with DED. The etiology and pathophysiology of DED will also be discussed, including disease progression and impact on the patient’s quality of life. With greater understanding of the pathophysiology of DED, there are numerous available therapies/strategies for the management of the disorder, ranging from artificial tear substitutes, anti-inflammatory agents, secretagogues, punctal plugs, and systemic immunosuppressives, to surgery. This activity will aim to provide managed healthcare professionals with an understanding of when and how to use these different strategies to reduce morbidity and prevent complications.Faculty
Richard G. Fiscella, PharmD, MPH
Department of Pharmacy Practice
University of Illinois at Chicago
According to the disclosure policies of the University of Cincinnati and Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education, faculty, editors, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control content are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships with relevant commercial companies related to this activity. All relevant conflicts of interest that are identified are reviewed for potential conflicts of interest. If a conflict is identified, it is the responsibility of the University of Cincinnati and Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education to initiate a mechanism to resolve the conflict(s). The existence of these interests or relationships is not viewed as implying bias or decreasing the value of the presentation. All educational materials are reviewed for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies reported, and levels of evidence.
The faculty and planning staff have disclosed the following relevant commercial financial relationships or affiliations in the past 12 months.
Richard G. Fiscella, PharmD, MPH
Allergan Managed Care
Grants: Allergan, Inc
Speaker’s Bureau: Allergan, Inc
Royalties: Butterworth Heinemann (publisher of Clinical Ocular Pharmacology, 4th ed)
The American Journal of Managed Care
Planning staff—Jeff D. Prescott, PharmD, RPh; Kara Guarini, MS; Ida Delmendo; and Christina Doong have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose related to this activity.
Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education
Planning staff—Judy V. Lum, MPA; Ann C. Lichti, CCMEP; and Donna Fausak have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose related to this activity.
University of Cincinnati
Planning staff—Susan P. Tyler, MEd, CMP, CCMEP; and Deborah Cole have no relevant financial relationships with commercial interests to disclose related to this activity.
Learner Assurance Statement
The University of Cincinnati and Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education are committed to resolving all conflict of interest issues that could arise as a result of prospective faculty members’ significant relationships with drug or device manufacturer(s). The University of Cincinnati and Pharmacy Times Office of Continuing Professional Education are committed to retaining only those speakers with financial interests that can be reconciled with the goals and educational integrity of the CME/CPE activity.
The contents of this supplement may include information regarding the use of products that may be inconsistent with or outside the approved labeling for these products in the United States. Physicians should note that the use of these products outside current approved labeling is considered experimental and are advised to consult prescribing information for these products.
Signed disclosures are on file at the office of The American Journal of Managed Care, Plainsboro, New Jersey.