What We're Reading: Distinct T1D Endotypes in Children; DNA Testing for Hereditary Breast Cancer; AI Use in Healthcare

March 16, 2020
AJMC Staff
AJMC Staff

Children were found to exhibit distinct type 1 diabetes endotypes compared with older adolescents; DNA testing has shown to be beneficial but controversial when personlizing care for patients with breast cancer; artifical intelligence (AI) usage across healthcare.

Researchers Discover Distinct T1D Endotypes in Children

In a study published in Diabetologia, researchers found that children younger than 7 years diagnosed with type 1 diabetes have a different endotype from those diagnosed at 13 years or older. Reported on by MedPage Today, the study analyzed pancreas samples derived from the child participants, revealing distinct patterns of proinsulin localization that were not as evident in the older group. “Our results strongly suggest that type 1 diabetes exists as distinct conditions that segregate according to age at diagnosis and are distinguishable histologically,” said the study authors.

Personalizing Hereditary Breast Cancer Treatments by DNA Testing

As DNA testing use grows to examine potential hereditary risks in breast cancer, a piece published in the The Washington Post discusses how even though these tests have led to the detection of a significant number of cancer-causing mutations, they have also contributed to potentially unnecessary surgeries. Initially, only the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations were tested, but now 30 to 80 cancer genes can be examined at a time, which may or may not have distinguishable cancer risks.

Artificial Intelligence Innovations in Healthcare

The use of artificial intelligence (AI) has led to several innovations within healthcare, such as faster diagnosis, automated claims processing, and accelerated development by pharmaceutical companies, among other advancements reported in Forbes. Additionally, ethical AI—when AI is used correctly and ethically—allows for greater accountability, traceability, and sustainability, which can assist in defining which AI use cases are and are not acceptable.