This supplement to The American Journal of Managed Care describes current strategies and treatment guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reviews the efficacy and safety of the incretin-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide- 1 agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors), discusses strategies and models to optimize patient care and outcomes in T2DM, and describes the role of comparative effectiveness research, pharmacoeconomic data analyses, and other decision support tools to predict the utility of T2DM treatment options.This activity is supported by an educational grant from Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc, and Lilly USA, LLC.
FacultyLawrence Blonde, MD, FACP, FACE
Director, Ochsner Diabetes Clinical Research Unit
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Ochsner Medical Center
New Orleans, Louisiana
Lawrence Blonde, MD, FACP, FACE, is director of the Ochsner Diabetes Clinical Research Unit in the Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism and an associate internal medicine residency program director at the Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Dr Blonde’s clinical and research activities have focused on patients with diabetes mellitus and investigations of new therapies and healthcare delivery systems for them. He has also published and presented information about the use of computers to enhance medical education and patient care.
Dr Blonde is presently an associate editor for the journal Diabetes Care. In 2011, he was a member of the Executive Committee and immediate past chair of the Steering Committee of the National Diabetes Education Program, a partnership of the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and more than 200 public and private organizations working to “change the way diabetes is treated.” He was a cochair and coauthor for the 2011 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for Developing a Diabetes Mellitus Comprehensive Care Plan.
Dr Blonde has been a member of the board of directors of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the board of trustees of the American College of Endocrinology. He is presently a member of the board of directors of the Council for the Advancement of Diabetes Research and Education and has been a member of the
National Quality Forum Adult Diabetes Care Consensus Maintenance Committee. Dr Blonde has been chair of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) Doing Better Committee, is a former member of the ADA board of directors, and is former chair of the ADA Professional Practice Committee, which develops practice guidelines for the care of people with diabetes.
John M. Cruickshank, DO, MBA, CPE
Chief Medical Officer
Lovelace Health Plan
Albuquerque, New Mexico
John M. Cruickshank, DO, MBA, CPE, has enjoyed a diverse and distinguished career in healthcare. After receiving his undergraduate degree from Loyola University of Chicago, where he graduated with honors, he attended medical school on a military scholarship at the Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine. He completed postgraduate
training at the Chicago Osteopathic Medical Centers and the Wilford Hall USAF Regional Medical Center in San Antonio, Texas.
Following completion of the USAF Aerospace Medicine Program at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, Dr Cruickshank practiced family and flight medicine as an attending flight surgeon. In 1985, he received the USAF Systems Command Flight Surgeon of the Year Award and was also awarded the Meritorious Service Medal for his distinguished service.
Dr Cruickshank set up his family medicine practice in Scottsdale, Arizona, in 1987. He earned his MBA degree from Arizona State University. He is also a graduate of the renowned Scottsdale Leadership Program.
Dr Cruickshank is board certified in medical management by the American College of Physician Executives and is an active member of the college. He is a member of the American Osteopathic Association as well as the Arizona Osteopathic Association, for which he is a past vice president.
Dr Cruickshank has also held senior medical management positions with CIGNA Healthcare and PacifiCare of Arizona. Most recently, Dr Cruickshank served as chief quality officer for IASIS Healthcare, guiding clinical effectiveness, quality, and patient safety.
James T. Kenney, Jr, RPh, MBA
Pharmacy Operations Manager
Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, Inc
James T. Kenney, Jr, RPh, MBA, is the pharmacy operations manager at Harvard Pilgrim Health Care (HPHC). HPHC is an independent practice association model health maintenance organization located in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Harvard serves more than 1,100,000 members in 3 states and has achieved the highest accreditation from the National Committee for Quality Assurance and has been ranked as the number 1 health plan in America for 4 consecutive years. Mr Kenney has been with Harvard for more than 30 years and has corporate responsibility for the pharmacy contracting program with pharmaceutical manufacturers and specialty pharmacy providers in support of a budget of more than $850,000,000. He is also a member of the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee.
His accomplishments include creation and management of the network pharmacy program for the group practice model of Harvard, development of the pharmacy rebate program, creation of the Medicare Part D contracting program, and being coleader of the Pharmacy Materials Management System Project. Mr Kenney developed the specialty pharmacy program at HPHC for injectables, and a second program in support of infertility management. He is a pharmacy preceptor for the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences and currently serves on the Legislative Committee at the college. He is also an active member of the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy, has served on the Nomination Committee, and currently serves as the chair of the Legislative and Regulatory Action Committee.
The authors thank Keith Engelke, PhD, Impact Education, LLC, for writing assistance in preparation of this supplement.
Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest
Postgraduate Institute for Medicine (PIM) assesses conflicts of interest with its instructors, planners, managers, and other individuals who are in a position to control the content of CE activities. All relevant conflicts of interest that are identified are thoroughly vetted by PIM for fair balance, scientific objectivity of studies utilized in this activity, and patient care recommendations. PIM is committed to providing its learners with high-quality CE activities and related materials that promote improvements or quality in healthcare and not a specific proprietary business interest of a commercial interest. Within the past 12 months, the faculty reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CE activity:
Lawrence Blonde, MD, FACP, FACE
Honoraria: Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Gilead, GlaxoSmithKline, JanssenPharmaceuticals, Inc, Merck & Co, Inc, Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis, Santarus, Inc
Grants: Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis
Lectureship fees: Amylin Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Johnson & Johnson Diabetes Institute, LLC, Merck & Co, Inc,
Novo Nordisk, sanofi-aventis, Santarus, Inc
Stock ownership: Pfizer Inc
John M. Cruickshank, DO, MBA, CPE, and James T. Kenney, Jr, RPh, MBA, have no relevant financial relationships to disclose that are related to this activity.
The planners and managers reported the following financial relationships or relationships to products or devices they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this CE activity:
Steve Casebeer, MBA; Keith Engelke, PhD; Laura Excell, ND, NP, MS, MA, LPC, NCC; Trace Hutchison, PharmD; Samantha Mattiucci, PharmD; Jan Schultz, RN, MSN, CCMEP; and Patricia Staples, MSN, NP-C, CCRN, hereby state that they or their spouse/life partner do not have any financial relationships or relationships to products or devices with any commercial interest related to the content of this activity of any amount during the past 12 months.
The publishing staff at The American Journal of Managed Care has no relevant financial relationships to disclose.
Signed disclosures are on file at the office of The American Journal of Managed Care, Plainsboro, New Jersey.
Opinions expressed by authors, contributors, and advertisers are their own and not necessarily those of Clinical Care Targeted Communications, LLC, d/b/a Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC, the editorial staff, or any member of the editorial advisory board. Clinical Care Targeted Communications, LLC, d/b/a Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC, is not responsible for accuracy of dosages given in articles printed herein. The appearance of advertisements in this publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality, or safety. Clinical Care Targeted Communications, LLC, d/b/a Managed Care & Healthcare Communications, LLC, disclaims responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas or products referred to in the articles or advertisements.