Immunoglobulin Levels Linked With Nasal Polyp Development

Local immunoglobulin levels were found to be significantly higher in polyp tissue specimens, but not in the blood, of patients with nasal polyps.

Nasal polyp development may be associated with heightened local immunoglobulin concentrations caused by chronic antigens, according to study findings published in Cellular and Molecular Biology.

Serving as one of the most common benign nasal tumors, nasal polyps have been linked with a myriad of potential underlying mechanisms, including the role of chronic infections, aspirin intolerance, and hereditary factors.

“The high level of inflammatory mediators, which is common and evident in nasal polyps, indicates that, regardless of the etiology of the polyp, there is no doubt that chronic inflammation is a major factor in the development of polyps,” added researchers. “Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 (CDK5) is one of the best CDK candidates for the diagnosis of inflammation, as it is responsible for the aberrant phosphorylation of inflamed cells.”

Recruiting 60 patients aged 16 years and older with nasal polyps and 60 control participants as part of a cross-sectional analysis, the study authors explored the relationship between local immunoglobulin levels and CDK5 levels in patients with nasal polyps.

In the study, concentrations were collected of local immunoglobulin levels, including IgE, IgM, IgA, and IgG, on blood and polyp specimens, with Western Blot Analysis conducted for CDK5 in plasma cells.

After conducting the Western Blot Analysis, CDK5 was identified in both patient groups, in which those with nasal polyps exhibited significantly higher concentrations compared with the control group (P = .029).

Significantly higher concentrations of IgA, IgG, and IgE were also shown in polyp tissue specimens of the patient group vs controls. However, these concentrations were not significantly different in the blood serum between both groups. No significant differences in both polyp tissue and blood serum was reported for IgM between the 2 groups.

“The difference in IgA, IgE and IgG expression between nasal polyp tissue and blood, supported by increased numbers of plasma cells, suggests a local production of these local immunoglobulins in nasal polyps in response to chronic antigens,” said the study authors.

Within the patient group, a significant correlation was identified between concentrations of IgG and CDK5 (r = 0.831; P < .0001), whereas a negative correlation was found between IgE and CDK5 (r= -0.598; P = .001). These correlations did not have significant differences in the control group.

“The exact explanation for the relationship between plasma CDK5 and local immunoglobulins in nasal polyps needs further studies,” they concluded.

Reference

Liu C, Luo Q, Tang Y, Yu G, Liang K, Huang L. Relationship between plasma cyclin-dependent kinase 5 levels and local immunoglobulin levels in patients with nasal polyps. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). Published online November 25, 2021. doi:10.14715/cmb/2021.67.3.17