Obesity, Physical Inactivity Linked With Higher Risk for Activity Limits in Asthma

Patients with asthma and all types of obesity, or with all types of obesity and physical inactivity, have an increased risk for limited activity of daily living, according to the results of a recent study.

Study results published in the Journal of Multidisciplinary Medicine showed that a higher risk of activity of daily living (ADL) limitation is associated with having all types of obesity in patients with asthma, compared with those without asthma.

Having all types of obesity and physical inactivity is also linked to a higher risk of ADL limitation in those with asthma. In addition, being aged between 60 and 74 years, female, having an undergraduate level of education, smoking, and the presence of joint/bone underlying diseases were all independently linked to risk of ADL limitation.

Researchers aimed to investigate the association between all types of obesity, physical inactivity, and the risk for ADL limitation for those with asthma compared to those without asthma. Obesity and physical inactivity are both risk factors for the health status of adults with asthma.

This cross-sectional study included 2555 individuals aged from 25 to 74 years. Data for this study was collected from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Refresher collected from 2011 to 2014. Of the 2555 participants included in the study, 314 had asthma, 65.3% were female, 79.3% were White, 60.2% had a doctorate, 66.7% had no alcohol intake, and 63.7% had joint/bone underlying diseases.

Based on self-reported questions, researchers determined participants’ physical status split them into 2 groups: those with and without asthma. Obesity was assessed using body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). The types of obesity were defined as follows:

  • A BMI ≥30kg/m2, WC >40-inch, and WHR >0.9
  • A BMI ≥30kg/m2
  • A WC > 40-inch for males; a WC > 34.5 for females
  • A WHR > 0.9 for males; a WHR > 0.85 for females

Using logistic regression analysis, study results showed that for participants with asthma and all types of obesity, as well as those with asthma, all types of obesity, and physical inactivity, the odds of having ADL limitations significantly increased by 3-fold times.

Participants with asthma and obesity (defined by BMI, WC, and WHR) had an almost 6-fold increase in their risk for ADL limitation than compared to those without asthma. Obesity defined by just BMI was significantly associated 5-fold higher odds of ADL limitation. Obesity defined by just WC was significantly associated with 3-fold higher odds of ADL limitation.

Aged between 60 to 74 years, being female, having an undergraduate level of education, smoking, having joint/bone underlying disease were all factors associated with a significant more than 2-fold increase in the risk of ADL.

For participants with patients and only physical inactivity, the odds of having ADL limitations increased by 1.69 times, which was not statistically significant.

Participants with asthma, obesity (defined by BMI, WC, and WHR), and physical inactivity experienced a 5-fold increased risk of ADL limitation. Just obesity defined by either BMI or WC was significantly associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk for ADL limitation. Physical inactivity was significantly associated a more than 2-fold increased risk for ADL limitation.

A limitation of this study is that causality regarding obesity, physical inactivity, and ADL cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional design. In addition, this study used self-reported data which may have affected results.

“Moreover, the current study findings highlight the importance of developing lifestyle interventions in asthma care and pulmonary rehabilitation that address all kinds of obesity, physical inactivity, and ADL limitation in this clinical population,” the researchers concluded.

Reference

Alhammad SA, Alwadeai KS. All types obesity and physical inactivity associated with the risk of activity of daily living limitations among people with asthma. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2022;15:1573-1583. doi:10.2147/JMDH.S368660